Tag Archives | IPM

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National Pollinator Week!

Summer is here and the weeds and wildflowers are blooming all around us. With the burst of summer color, come the many bees, flies, beetles, moths, and butterflies that serve to pollinate these plants. Pollinators are vitally important to the health of our natural areas and local economies.  Invasive weeds can play an important role […]

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BMP: GARLIC MUSTARD (Alliaria petiolata)

Common name:

Garlic mustard, Jack-by-the-hedge

Scientific Name:

Alliaria petiolata (syns. Alliaria alliaria)

Noxious Weed Listing:

Description:

General:

Garlic mustard is a biennial plant in the Brassicacaea (Mustard) family. Garlic mustard is an aggressive woodland invader throughout much of the continental United States. It affects both disturbed and pristine woodlands and has become one of the worst invaders of forests in the American Northeast and Midwest regions. The plant can form dense stands up to 4 ft in height and can aggressively out-compete other native plants. The most identifying set of factors for this plant are its white, cross-shaped (cruciform) flowers and presence of a garlic odor on crushed leaves.

Leaves:

The leaves of this plant are stalked with kidney-shaped to triangular leaves and a coarsely-toothed margin. The leaves vary in length from less than 1 inch to more than 6 inches. The basal rosette features primarily kidney-shaped leaves while the mature flowering stalks have triangular leaves. When crushed, the leaves typically have a pungent garlic-like odor.

Flowers

Garlic mustard flowers have four small, white petals that grow in the shape of a cross. The flowers emerge on mature plants from May to June in our region. The flowers have 4 sepals that are generally half as long as the petals.

Fruits

Garlic mustard produces elongated seed pods that are slender, slightly curving, and up to 3 inches long. Adult plants can produce up to 8000 seeds which can remain viable in the soil for more than 10 years. The seeds are brown to black, grooved, and oblong when mature.

Roots

This plant has roots that typically feature an s-shaped hook or bend just below the soil line on its single tap root.

Reproduction:

This species reproduces exclusively by seed. Seeds most often fall near the parent plant, but, importantly, are also transported by moving water, wildlife, and contaminated equipment such as hiking boots, mowers, and vehicles. Stands of garlic mustard can produce more than 62,000 seeds per square meter. The seeds germinate in the late winter and spring at typically very high densities and form rosettes in their first year of growth. The rosettes overwinter and begin to bolt and flower the following spring and summer. The seeds can survive in the soil for up to 10 years and still germinate.

Habitat:

Garlic mustard grows best in filtered to partial light. However, in our region garlic mustard can grow in an exceptionally wide variety of habitats including both open and shaded ones as well as upland and stream-side locations. It grows on sand, loam, and clay soils. Where this plant is most abundant in Clackamas County, it is predominantly found near rivers, roadsides, and on non-turf portions of parks and residential properties.

Impacts:

  • Garlic mustard can invade healthy forests and severely reduce biodiversity through highly successful competition for light.
  • It is thought to produce a toxin that kills soil fungi that other native plants are dependent on, including native tree seedlings.
  • Degrades wildlife habit and reduces the diversity of animals in infested areas.

Introduction:

Garlic mustard is native to Europe, North Africa, and parts of Asia. It was originally introduced to North America as a garden and medicinal herb. The first documentation of garlic mustard growing in North America is from 1868 on Long Island, NY. In Oregon, the earliest herbarium record is from 1959 on the Reed College campus. While it has been around for numerous decades, it has only been in the last two decades that the plant has begun to rapidly expand its geographic range in our area. This lag period is a common phenomena that many invasive plants exhibit when introduced to a new region. Significant efforts throughout the Portland region are underway to contain, suppress, and, in many areas, attempt to eradicate garlic mustard populations.

Distribution:

Clackamas County:

This plant can be found in several communities and river systems in Clackamas County, but it is not widespread. This species is actively surveyed for, but the mapped distributions do not represent the full extent of the population in Clackamas County. Please report any sightings of this weed, even if nearby populations have already been mapped.

State of Oregon:

United States:

Management:

Strategy:

The management of invasive weeds is best served through a process know as Integrated Pest Management (IPM).  IPM is a weed management methodology that utilizes:

  • Management thresholds to determine when and if to initiate control,
  • The ecology and life history characteristics of the targeted invasive weed,
  • Site specific conditions and land use considerations to inform management practices,
  • The effectiveness and efficiency of various control methods.

An IPM based strategy ensures the maximum effectiveness of treatment measures.  IPM strategies typically use more than one management method to target one or more susceptible life stages.  It is adaptive to site conditions in the field and to the response of a plant to management.  The utilization of multiple management tools also inherently reduces the use of herbicides in a management plan.   The IPM process ultimately provides a framework for the establishment of Best Management Practices (BMP) which outlines the best approach for controlling a weed particular infestation.

Manual:

Garlic mustard can be effectively controlled through hand pulling. Care must be taken to remove the taproot completely. Root fragments left in the ground can resprout. The highest priority for all methods of control is to target the second-year plants to prevent seed production. Hand pulling is often, however, not practical on well-established, extensive populations or in areas with compacted soils. Removed plant material should be bagged and placed in the trash.

Mechanical:

Generally, mowing is not recommended. However, when done properly frequent mowing can reduce or eliminate seed production. Plants should be cut as low as practical and should be cut repeatedly throughout the spring and early summer. Be sure to monitor your work to ensure that you are effectively suppressing flowering and seed production. Be sure to prevent the spread of seeds by cleaning equipment well and managing any adjacent, unmowed affected areas.

Cultural:

Garlic mustard is not toxic and is edible.  Grazing animals tend to avoid garlic mustard due to its pungent garlic-like odor but will graze it when more desirable vegetation is depleted.   Garlic mustard is best grazed before flowering to reduce seed production, but grazing alone will not eliminate garlic mustard.  For dairy producers, grazing is not recommended as garlic mustard is known to impart an unpleasant odor to the taste of milk.

Chemical:

Before you Start:

  • Before purchasing any herbicide product it is important to read the label.  The label is the Law.  Carefully review all parts of the label even if you have used the product before.  Select a product that is most appropriate for your site.  If you have questions, ask your vendor before purchasing a product.
  • When selecting herbicides always use a product appropriately labeled for your site. Follow label recommendations and restrictions at all times.  If any information provided here contradicts the label, the label takes precedence.  Always follow the label!
  • Protect yourself.  Always wear the recommended protective clothing identified on your label and shower after use.
  • When applying herbicides use spot spray techniques whenever possible to avoid harming non-target plants.
  • Do not apply during windy or breezy conditions that may result in drift to non-target plants
  • Avoid spraying near water.  Hand-pull in these areas, to protect aquatic and riparian plants and wildlife.
  • Avoid exposure to pets, pollinators, and wildlife.  Remove animals from treatment areas to avoid exposure to herbicides. Follow the reentry instructions on your herbicide label and keep pets out of the area until the herbicides have dried.  Avoid spraying when insects and animals are active.  Avoid spraying blooming plants to minimize an effects to bees and pollinators.
  • Be sure to store any chemicals, out of the reach of children and pets to keep your family safe.

Herbicides:

The mention of any brand name product is not, and should not be construed as an endorsement for that product.  They are included here only for educational purposes.  Suggested rates are generalized by active ingredient.  Specific rates will vary between products.  Be sure to review the label before application and use the recommended label rate at all times.

Active Ingredients

Product Names: Accord, Aquamaster, Rodeo, Roundup, and various others

Rate:
Broadcast: 2 – 4 pt product per acre (1.1 to 2.25 lb ae/acre)
Spot treat: use 1% to 3% v/v solution

Time: Postemergence to rosettes in late Fall or early Spring when plants are in the rosette stage.

Comments: Re-treatment may be required to achieve effective control.  Glyphosate is not selective and will harm grasses.  Use care when working around desirable plants to avoid damage.  Mature plants can be controlled with glyphosate with some caveats. Mature plants often die very slowly when applied with Glyphosate and may not halt seed production.

Product Names: Garlon 4 (triclopyr ester),  Garlon 3A, Element 3A (triclopyr amine)

Rate:
Broadcast: Triclopyr ester- 8 oz. product per acre
Spot treat: Triclopyr ester use 1.25% to 2.5% v/v solution, Triclopyr amine use 2% v/v solution

Time: Triclopyr provides good control when applied to rosettes through until the mature, flowering stage.

Comments: Triclopyr is selective and will harm desirable broadleaf plants, trees, and shrubs.  Use care when working around desirable plants to avoid damage.  Leaves should be sprayed until wet but not dripping to achieve good control.  Triclopyr ester formulations may volatilize under warm temperatures.

Product Names: various

Rate:
Broadcast: 1 pint product per acre
Spot treat: 1% v/v solution

Time: 2,4-D provides some control when applied to rapidly growing plants before flowering stage.

Comments: 2,4-D can be applied alone or mixed with dicamba.  Some reports have shown limited success when treating with 2,4-D.

Product Names: Plateau

Rate: 4 to 6 oz of product per acre

Time: Apply post emergence in fall or early spring.

Comments: Use with a methylated seed oil to improve uptake

Product Names: Escort

Rate: 0.5 to 1 oz of product per acre

Time: Apply post emergence in fall or early spring.

Comments: Use a non-ionic surfactant to improve uptake

Product Names: Oust

Rate: 0.5 oz of product per acre

Time: Apply post emergence in fall or early spring.

Comments: Use a non-ionic surfactant to improve uptake

Product Names: Outrider

Rate: 2 oz of product per acre

Time: Apply post emergence in fall or early spring.

Comments: Use a non-ionic surfactant to improve uptake

Biological:

There are no approved biological control agents ready for release in the United States.  Currently four weevils under consideration as potential biological control agents.  These include two stem mining insects (Ceutorhynchus alliariae &  Ceutorhynchus robertii), one root feeder (Ceutorhynchus scrobicollis), and one weevil (Ceutorhynchus constrictus) that develops in the garlic mustard seeds.

Disposal:

Please dispose of mature seeding producing garlic mustard plants as trash. Plants still in the rosette state can be disposed as yard waste for commercial composting.  It is generally not recommended that garlic mustard be composted on site even for immature plants.  Soil residues from pulled plants are commonly contaminted by garlic mustard seed, and home compost systems inconsistently reach temperatures sufficient to destroy seeds.

Follow-Up:

Any control plan for garlic mustard will typically require at least five years of control and/or monitoring. Well-established populations will often not show significant reductions in population size until several years of treatments have been performed. Monitor presumed eradicated patches for at least a few years to ensure that no additional seedlings emerge.

Best Management Practices:

Small Infestations:

  • Consider the land use practices on site.  Identify any site specific considerations that should be taken into account before initiating control.
  • Be sure you can properly identify garlic mustard.  If you are unsure about your weed bring a sample to the Conservation District, and we can help to identify your particular weed.
  • If you are working on public property be sure to coordinate with the land manager.
  • Identify any native or desirable plants nearby, and take precautions to minimize and negative impact to them.
  • Hand pull all adult plants after bolting has been initiated in the spring, typically sometime in April. Bag plants and place in the trash.
  • Do not hand pull once seed production has begun to reduce the risk of spreading seeds.
  • Repeated visits and a very thorough survey of infested areas over the course of the spring is required to get good control using manual methods.
  • Applications of glyphosate or triclopyr at recommended label rates can be very effective on smaller sites, particularly when dealing with dry and compacted soils.

Large Infestations:

  • Consider the land use practices on site.  Identify any site specific considerations that should be taken into account before initiating control.
  • Be sure you can properly identify garlic mustard.  If you are unsure about your weed bring a sample to the Conservation District, and we can help to identify your particular weed.
  • Identify any native or desirable plants nearby, and take precautions to minimize and negative impact to them.
  • Apply glyphosate or triclopyr at recommended label rates to bolting plants or flowering plants and any rosettes or seedlings present. Glyphosate may not effectively halt seed production when applied to late flowering individuals.
  • It is common that seedlings and even mature plants are missed, even with very thoroughly control efforts. Plan to revisit your application site approximately 2-3 weeks after application to perform followup control. If the patch is still flowering, reapply using triclopyr. If seed production has begun, but viable seeds are not present, switch to hand pulling to remove remaining plants. If viable seed is present, leave the site until next year and do not hand pull to avoid spreading seed.

Fun Facts:

  • More than 8,000 results are returned from a scholar.google.com search for Alliaria petiolata.
  • Garlic mustard affects 38 U.S. states
  • Garlic mustard is one of the most nutritious leafy greens ever analyzed. It has more fiber, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, and zinc than spinach, broccoli leaves, collards, turnip greens, and kale.

Additional Information:

References:

  1. Bugwood Wiki.  Alliaria petiolata.  http://wiki.bugwood.org/Alliaria_petiolata.  (accessed January 7th, 2015)
  2. Christy, J. A., A. Kimpo, V. Marttala, P. K. Gaddis, & N. L. Christy.  2009.  Urbanizing Flora of Portland Oregon 1806-2008.  Native Plant Society of Oregon Occasional Paper 3 pg. 218.
  3. DiTomaso, J.M., G.B. Kyser, S.R. Oneto, R. G. Wilson, S. B. Orloff, L. W. Anderson, S. D. Wright, J.A. Roncoroni, T.L. Miller, T.S. Prather.  2013.  Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States.  Davis, CA: UC Weed Research and Information Center.  pp 341-343.
  4. Kallas, John. “Garlic Mustard.” Edible Wild Plants. Layton: Gibbs Smith, 2010. 231-48.
  5. Kaufman, S.R. and W. Kaufman.  2007.  Invasive Plants: Guide to Identification and Impacts and Control of Commons North American Species. Stackpole Books.  Mechanicsburg, PA.  pp.277-280.
  6. King County Noxious Weed Control Program.  2010.  King County Best Management Practices for Controlling Garlic Mustardhttp://your.kingcounty.gov/dnrp/library/water-and-land/weeds/BMPs/Garlic-Mustard-Control.pdf  (accessed January 7th, 2015).
  7. The Nature Conservancy. Element Stewardship Abstract for Alliaria petiolata (Allaria officianalis) Garlic Mustard.  http://www.invasive.org/weedcd/pdfs/tncweeds/allipet.pdf.  (accessed January 7th, 2015)
  8. Oregon Flora Project. 2013.  Oregon Plant Atlas: Alliaria petiolata.  http://www.oregonflora.org/atlas.php.  (accessed January 7th, 2015)
  9. Peachey, E., editor. 2015. Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook [online]. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. http://pnwhandbooks.org/weed (accessed Feb 26, 2016

BMP: BLESSED MILKTHISTLE (Silybum marianum)

Common name:

Blessed milkthistle, Milk thistle, Marian thistle, Mary thistle, Saint Mary’s thistle, Mediterranean milk thistle, Variegated thistle

Scientific Name:

Silybum marianum. (Syn. Cardus marianus)

Noxious Weed Listing:

Description:

General:

Blessed milkthistle is a sparsely branched thistle growing up to 6 feet tall and forming dense stands. It’s a tap-rooted biennial or annual that forms large rosettes followed by 2 inch purple blooms borne singly on unbranched, grooved and somewhat cottony stems.

Leaves:

Leaves are oblong to lanceolate, hairless, shiny dark green with distinctive white patterns running along the veins, reaching up to 20 inches long and 10 inches wide. The white mottling gives the plant the appearance of having been drenched in milk, thus the common name. Leaf margins are tipped with spines up to 1/2 inch in length. Large rosettes can reach 3 feet in diameter.

Flowers

Solitary composite red-purple flowers reach 2 inches in diameter and are surrounded by leathery, spiny, hairless bracts. The all-disk flowers are similar to other thistles, with large spines extending out in layers from under the pincushion-flower head. Plants flower from April to October.

Fruits

Dark brown, relatively heavy hairless achenes, about 1/2 by 1/4 inch, form in autumn.

Roots

Plants grow from long white taproots.

Reproduction:

Reproduction is from seeds. Plants are typically biennial in our area, so they die after going to seed. Seeds are relatively heavy and dispersal is usually by animals, equipment, vehicles or contaminated hay. Plants can produce more than 6,000 seeds per year which can remain viable in the soil for at least 9 years, where disturbance will cause them to germinate. Seeds often germinate following the first rains of the season, but may continue to germinate through the winter.

Habitat:

Blessed milkthistle can be found in full sun or part shade.  They typically grow in heavily grazed pastures and on roadsides where nitrogen is high and disturbance regimes are frequent. This plant is also traded horticulturally and found in ornamental and medicinal gardens.

Impacts:

  • Serious threat to livestock. Ingestion by livestock can cause nitrate poisoning and death.
  • Forms dense stands that shade out forage species and exclude livestock.
  • Spines can cause injury to people and livestock.
  • Displaces native vegetation.

Introduction:

Native to southern Europe, blessed milkthistle was probably introduced to the US as a medicinal plant by early colonists. It has become common in Canada and throughout the southern United States.

Distribution:

Clackamas County :

Blessed milkthistle is relatively rare in Clackamas County, with populations associated with disturbed and unmanaged sites.  Milkthistle is occasionally cultivated as an herbal supplement.

State of Oregon:

United States:

Management:

Strategy:

The management of invasive weeds is best served through a process know as Integrated Pest Management (IPM). IPM is a weed management methodology that utilizes:

  • Management thresholds to determine when and if to initiate control,
  • The ecology and life history characteristics of the targeted invasive weed,
  • Site specific conditions and land use considerations to inform management practices,
  • The effectiveness and efficiency of various control methods.

An IPM based strategy ensures the maximum effectiveness of treatment measures.  IPM strategies typically use more than one management method to target one or more susceptible life stages.  It is adaptive to site conditions in the field and to the response of a plant to management.  The utilization of multiple management tools also inherently reduces the use of herbicides in a management plan.   The IPM process ultimately provides a framework for the establishment of Best Management Practices (BMP’s), which outlines the best approach for controlling a weed particular infestation.

Manual:

Blessed milkthistle responds well to manual control for small outbreaks. Dig plants whenever you find them, prior to flowering.  Once they are flowering, be sure to carefully bag and dispose of plants to prevent seed set. Viable seeds will continue to form after plants are dug up and it can be difficult to contain mature seed heads without spreading seeds.   In this case, carefully remove and bag all flower and seed heads before digging plants. Where mature plants are removed search carefully for small rosettes or germinating seeds.  Return to the same location in spring and fall, and continue to monitor for several years. For best control, sow native plant seeds on disturbed soils to suppress milkthistle germination.

Mechanical:

Cultivation and tillage can be effective control options for seedlings, but soil disturbance will increase germination in the soil seed bank. Mowing will not eradicate milkthistle.  Plants are able to re-sprout and flower in the same season after being mowed. Plants can persist as perennials in a regular mowing cycle, and may flower below the level of the mower, spreading seeds to new areas. Mowing may also increase the amount of toxic material ingested by grazing animals, as milk thistle becomes more palatable as it wilts. If you do mow near a milkthistle infestation, be sure to clean your mower to prevent spreading seeds to new locations.

Cultural:

Good grazing practices and management for grasses and forage species will reduce the disturbance regime and decrease opportunity for milk thistle to become established. Minimize soil disturbance and re-vegetate to prevent infestations. Burning is not an effective control and can encourage seed germination and establishment.

Chemical:

Herbicides should only be used at the rates and site conditions specified on their label.

For control of large milk thistle infestations, apply a selective broadleaf herbicide and surfactant in the spring and again in the fall.  Infested areas should not be mowed  until the herbicide has had a chance to work. Continue to monitor areas in spring and autumn for several years following treatment.

Before you Start:

  • Before purchasing any herbicide product it is important to read the label.  The label is the Law.  Carefully review all parts of the label even if you have used the product before.  Select a product that is most appropriate for your site.  If you have questions, ask your vendor before purchasing a product.
  • When selecting herbicides always use a product appropriately labeled for your site. Follow label recommendations and restrictions at all times.  If any information provided here contradicts the label, the label takes precedence.  Always follow the label!
  • Protect yourself.  Always wear the recommended protective clothing identified on your label and shower after use.
  • When applying herbicides use spot spray techniques whenever possible to avoid harming non-target plants.
  • Do not apply during windy or breezy conditions that may result in drift to non-target plants
  • Avoid spraying near water.  Hand-pull in these areas, to protect aquatic and riparian plants and wildlife.
  • Avoid exposure to pets, pollinators, and wildlife.  Remove animals from treatment areas to avoid exposure to herbicides. Follow the reentry instructions on your herbicide label and keep pets out of the area until the herbicides have dried.  Avoid spraying when insects and animals are active.  Avoid spraying blooming plants to minimize an effects to bees and pollinators.
  • Be sure to store any chemicals, out of the reach of children and pets to keep your family safe.
  • Product labels and formulations change regularly.  Check the Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook and the label for current control recommendations.

Herbicides:

The mention of any brand name product is not, and should not be construed as an endorsement for that product.  They are included here only for educational purposes.  Suggested rates are generalized by active ingredient.  Specific rates will vary between products.  Be sure to review the label before application and use the recommended label rate at all times.

Active Ingredients

Product Names: Many products

Rate: 3-4 pt product/acre (1.43 to 1.9 lb a.e./acre)

Time: Apply post emergence in spring or fall to young, growing plants.

Comments:  2,4-D is a broadleaf-selective herbicide without residual soil activity. Treat rosettes in the fall. Use spring treatments prior to flower stalk elongation. Treat annually for several years to control seedlings. 

Product Names: Milestone

Rate: 3-5 oz product/acre (0.75 to 1.25 oz a.e./acre)

Time: Apply post emergence in spring or to early summer to rosettes and bolting plants.  Apply in fall to seedlings and rosettes.

Comments: Aminopyralid is a broadleaf-selective herbicide with moderate soil residual activity. A non-ionic surfactant can enhance control under adverse environmental conditions.

Product Names: Transline

Rate: 0.25-1 pt product/acre. (1.5-6 oz  a.e/acre) Spot treatment: 1-2% v/v solution

Time: Apply post emergence from the seedling to bud stage, when plants are rapidly growing

Comments:Generally safe for grass but will harm members of Asteraceae and Fabaceae

Product Names: Curtail

Rate: 1-5 qt product/acre.

Time: Apply post emergence to basal rosettes from spring until bud stage.

Comments:This is a non-selective product and neither compound has soil activity. Replant sprayed area to prevent re-establishment of milk thistle.

Product Names: Banvel, Clarity

Rate: 1-2 pt product/acre (0.5-1 lb a.e./acre).

Time: Apply post emergence to basal rosettes from spring until bud stage.

Comments:This is a non-selective product and neither compound has soil activity. Replant sprayed area to prevent re-establishment of milk thistle.

Product Names: Campaign

Rate: Broadcast foliar treatment: 1-2 pt product/acre. Spot treatment: 1-2% v/v solution

Time: Apply post emergence in spring to rosettes, or in fall before freeze.

Comments:This is a non-selective product and neither compound has soil activity. Replant sprayed area to prevent re-establishment of milk thistle.

Product Names: Telar

Rate:1 oz product/acre (0.75 oz ai/acre)

Time: Apply post emergence, to rapidly growing plants

Comments: Chlorsulfuron is primarily active against broad-leaf plants and generally will not harm grasses. It has logn soil activity. Do not apply to dry, powdery, or sandy soils unless rain is expected.

Product Names: Escort

Rate:1 oz product/acre (0.6 oz ai/acre)

Time: Apply post emergence, to rapidly growing plants

Comments: Metsulfuron is primarily active against broadleaf plants and generally will not harm grasses. It has some soil activity. Use a non-ionic or silicone-based surfactant to increase effectiveness.

Biological:

Blessed milkthistle is impacted by Rhinocyllus conicus, a seed head weevil first released in 1979.  Rhinocyllus conicus is widespread in Oregon, and feed heavily on blessed milkthistle.  The presence of Rhinocyllus conicus offered excellent control of blessed milkthistle but is not recommended.  Rhinocyllus conicus targets many native thistles species, and its redistribution is discouraged.  Interstate distribution of this biological control is prohibited.

Disposal:

Bag all flowers and seed heads and dispose of in garbage.  Seeds will continue to mature after plant is pulled.  Do not compost seeds or flower heads.

Follow-Up:

Sites should be monitored for several years after removal of mature plants. Viable seeds can last at least 9 years in the soil.

Best Management Practices:

Small Infestations:

  • Consider the land use practices on site.  Identify site specific considerations that should be taken into account before initiating control.
  • Be sure you can properly identify blessed milkthistle.  If you are unsure about your weed, bring a sample to the Conservation District and we can help to identify your particular plant.
  • Identify any native or desirable plants nearby, and take precautions to minimize any negative impact to them.
  • Small infestations can be controlled manually by digging entire plants.  Dispose of plants by bagging entire plant and placing in garbage. Do not compost or feed to livestock.
  • Replace any divots created when removing the plants to lessen the amount of disturbed soil.
  • If using herbicide, apply using a spot spray technique to minimize non-target injury.
  • Monitor site throughout growing season and remove any new plants.
  • If using an herbicide in a grassy area, use a selective herbicide with a non‐ionic surfactant to avoid injury to the grass.
  • If using herbicides where livestock may be present, be aware of grazing restrictions and damage to forage plants.

Large Infestations:

  • Consider the land use practices on site.  Identify site specific considerations that should be taken into account before initiating control.
  • Be sure you can properly identify blessed milk thistle.  If you are unsure about your weed, bring a sample to the Conservation District and we can help to identify your particular plant.
  • Identify any native or desirable plants nearby, and take precautions to minimize any negative impact to them.
  • Apply selective herbicides with a non‐ionic surfactant in the spring before any flowers appear.
  • Remove all grazing animals from infested areas.
  • Apply herbicide utilizing a spot spray or broadcast application.
  • Apply herbicide on warm days when winds are low.
  • Try not to disturb soil. Replace any divots created. Maintain a healthy vegetative cover.
  • Continue to monitor site throughout growing season and for a few years post treatment. Remove any new growth.
  • Check label for specific information on wind and rain guidelines.

Fun Facts:

  • Silymarin is a chemical extracted from the blessed milkthistle seeds, is thought to help repair liver cells damaged by alcohol and other toxic substances, including the toxins found in Amanita phalloides, the death cap mushroom.
  • Blessed milkthistle has been used medicinally for over 2000 years.
  • Blessed milkthistle is a nitrogen accumulator, and can cause nitrate poisoning in livestock.

Additional Information:

References:

  1. DiTomaso, J.M., G.B. Kyser, S.R. Oneto, R. G. Wilson, S. B. Orloff, L. W. Anderson, S. D. Wright, J.A. Roncoroni, T.L. Miller, T.S. Prather.  2013.  Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States.  Davis, CA: UC Weed Research and Information Center.  pp 371-2.
  2. King County Noxious Weed Control Program.  2011.  King County Noxious Weed Control Program, Best Management Practices: Milk Thistle .  http://your.kingcounty.gov/dnrp/library/water-and-land/weeds/BMPs/Milk-Thistle-Control.pdf  (Retrieved Jan. 6, 2015).
  3. Oregon Flora Project. 2013.  Oregon Plant Atlas: Rubus bifrons.  http://www.oregonflora.org/atlas.php.  (Retrieved Jan. 6, 2015)

BMP:TANSY RAGWORT (Senecio jacobaea)

Common name:

Tansy Ragwort, Stinking willie, Staggerwort, Tansy butterweed

Scientific Name:

Senecio jacobaea (syn. Jacobaea vulgaris)

Noxious Weed Listing:

Description:

General:

Tansy ragwort is a tall biennial plant in the sunflower family.  It can grow up to 6 feet in height at maturity.  The rigid stems of Tansy ragwort are green with an occasional reddish tinge.  Plants typically arise from a single stem that becomes branched at the top of the plant, forming flat clusters of bright yellow flowers. The yellow daisy-like flowers have dark yellow to orange centers.  Leaves are dark green and ruffled in appearance.  Tansy ragwort grows as a rosette in its first year before transitioning into the mature flowering form in its second year of growth.  Tansy ragwort can form dense patches, particularly on disturbed sites.  This noxious weed is dangerous to humans and livestock due to a poisonous alkaloid (hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine) in its tissue which causes liver damage when ingested.

Leaves:

Tansy ragwort leaves are evenly spaced and alternate along the stem.  Leaves decrease in size toward the top of the plant. Leaves can be smooth, or lightly hairy on their underside of lower leaves. Leaves are dark green and generally lighter on the underside. The leaves of Tansy ragwort are pinnate and appear to be ruffled in appearance.

Flowers

Tansy ragwort has bright yellow, showy flowers forming a flat topped cluster at the end of the stem. There can be anywhere from 20-60 flowers in a cluster. The daisy-like flowers have numerous disc flowers surrounded by 10-15 (13) evenly spaced ray flowers. Peak flowering occurs from July to September.

Fruits

Tansy ragwort produce very small, cylindrical seed like fruits called achenes.  The achenes from the ray flowers are smooth while the achenes from the disc flowers are hairy.  The achenes have a dandelion-like set of bristly hairs called a pappus which aids in dispersal of the seed by wind.  Adult plants can produce up to 200,000 seeds.  Seeds can remain viable in the soil for more than 10 years.

Roots

The root system of tansy ragwort consists of a distinct tap root or crown with  lateral  and secondary roots spreading away from the plant. Roots can reach 1 foot deep into the soil.  New root shoots are easily formed if a plant is mowed, cut, or injured.

Reproduction:

Tansy ragwort reproduces both vegetatively and by seed. Vegetative reproduction occurs when roots or crown is injured and new shoots develop. The fragments from the injured roots can also generate shoots. Seeds are dispersed by wind or by wildlife. Seeds can also be transported by machinery, contaminated soil and hay, and boots and clothing.

Habitat:

Tansy ragwort is opportunistic plant often found in disturbed areas. Tansy likes a cool and wet climate, well drained soils and full to partial sun. Patches are found in pastures, fields, grasslands, vacant land,  waste places, horse trails, roadsides, rangeland, riparian areas, forested areas, and clear cuts.  Areas of greatest concern are improperly managed pastures and disturbed areas.

Impacts:

  • Competes with and displaces native vegetation.
  • Contains alkaloids that are lethal to most livestock, with death occuring after consuming 3-8% of body weight (Boersma et al. 2006).
  • Can contaminate hay, milk, and honey.
  • Reduces pasture productivity.

Introduction:

Native to Eurasia, Native was first reported in the United States in California in 1912. In Oregon, Tansy ragwort was believed to have been introduced through contaminated ballast in the early 1900s (Christy et al., 2009).  The first documented herbaria record for Tansy is from Multnomah county 1922. Since becoming established it has spread across western Oregon.

Distribution:

Clackamas County:

Tansy ragwort can be found throughout Clackamas County.  It is very widespread and directly impacts properties throughout the county.  As an ubiquitous weed this is not a species that is actively surveyed and the mapped distributions do not represent the full extent of the tansy ragwort population in Clackamas County.

State of Oregon:

United States:

Management:

Strategy:

The management of invasive weeds is best served through a process know as Integrated Pest Management (IPM).  IPM is a weed management methodology that utilizes:

  • Management thresholds to determine when and if to initiate control,
  • The ecology and life history characteristics of the targeted invasive weed,
  • Site specific conditions and land use considerations to inform management practices,
  • The effectiveness and efficiency of various control methods.

An IPM based strategy ensures the maximum effectiveness of treatment measures.  IPM strategies typically use more than one management method to target one or more susceptible life stages.  It is adaptive to site conditions in the field and to the response of a plant to management.  The utilization of multiple management tools also inherently reduces the use of herbicides in a management plan.   The IPM process ultimately provides a framework for the establishment of Best Management Practices (BMP) which outlines the best approach for controlling a weed particular infestation.

Manual:

Tansy ragwort can be effectively controlled by biological, chemical and manual methods. It is an important plant to control, especially in hay and pasture lands, where it can harm grazing animals. As with any control method it is important to avoid disturbing the soil as much as possible.  Soil disturbance can bring buried seeds to the surface, and lead to increased soil erosion.   Due to the toxicity of Tansy ragwort, be sure to wear gloves and protective clothing when removing tansy.

Tansy ragwort can be controlled by digging or pulling. Plants should be pulled between May and June, after they bolt and before they flower. Pulling and digging are easier when soil is moist. Rosettes should be dug up, removing as much as the root as possible. Grubbing tools, hoes, and shovels can be used.

Mechanical:

Mowing is not a suggested means of control for tansy ragwort.  While mowing may prevent the plant from immediately producing seeds, it also stimulates additional vegetative growth.  This leads to more plants and more stems per plant in the same season. Mowing is especially problematic in pastures, where it can spread the toxic leaves making it harder for grazing animals to avoid.

Cultural:

Grazing of Tansy ragwort is generally discouraged.  For most grazing animals, the plant is highly toxic.  Sheep are known to tolerate the alkaloids, but Tansy ragwort is not considered desirable forage.  The impacts of grazing on Tansy ragwort is similar to mowing, and may help to suppress the plant, but is not an effective control method.

Chemical:

Herbicide application is an effective means to control tansy ragwort infestations. Tansy ragwort is susceptible to several systemic herbicides. Be cautious when using herbicides on pasture land with grazing animals.

Before you Start:

  • Before purchasing any herbicide product it is important to read the label.  The label is the Law.  Carefully review all parts of the label even if you have used the product before.  Select a product that is most appropriate for your site.  If you have questions, ask your vendor before purchasing a product.
  • When selecting herbicides always use a product appropriately labeled for your site. Follow label recommendations and restrictions at all times.  If any information provided here contradicts the label, the label takes precedence.  Always follow the label!
  • Protect yourself.  Always wear the recommended protective clothing identified on your label and shower after use.
  • When applying herbicides use spot spray techniques whenever possible to avoid harming non-target plants.
  • Do not apply during windy or breezy conditions that may result in drift to non-target plants
  • Avoid spraying near water.  Hand-pull in these areas, to protect aquatic and riparian plants and wildlife.
  • Avoid exposure to pets, pollinators, and wildlife.  Remove animals from treatment areas to avoid exposure to herbicides. Follow the reentry instructions on your herbicide label and keep pets out of the area until the herbicides have dried.  Avoid spraying when insects and animals are active.  Avoid spraying blooming plants to minimize any effects to bees and pollinators.
  • Be sure to store any chemicals, out of the reach of children and pets to keep your family safe.
  • Product labels and formulations change regularly.  Check the Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook and the label for current control recommendations.

Herbicides:

The mention of any brand name product is not, and should not be construed as an endorsement for that product.  They are included here only for educational purposes.  Suggested rates are generalized by active ingredient.  Specific rates will vary between products.  Be sure to review the label before application and use the recommended label rate at all times.

Active Ingredients

Product Names: Several names

Rate:
1 to 2 lb acid equivalent per acre

Time: Apply in late fall though spring (November through April) after seedlings have emerged and before rosettes have bolted.

Comments: Re-treatment may be required to achieve effective control.  2,4-D is a broad leaf selective herbicide and not will harm grasses.  Use care when working around desirable plants to avoid damage.  Leaves should be sprayed until wet but not dripping to achieve good control.

Product Names: Banvel,  Clarity

Rate:
1 lb acid equivalent per acre

Time: Apply in late fall though spring (November through April) after seedlings have emerged and before rosettes have bolted.

Comments: Re-treatment may be required to achieve effective control.  Dicamba is a broad leaf selective herbicide and not will harm grasses.  Use care when working around desirable plants to avoid damage.  Leaves should be sprayed until wet but not dripping to achieve good control.

Product Names: Weedmaster, Pasturemaster

Rate:
2 qt per acre

Time: Apply in late fall though spring (November through April) after seedlings have emerged and before rosettes have bolted.

Comments: Re-treatment may be required to achieve effective control.  2,4-D& dicamba are broad leaf selective herbicides and not will harm grasses.  Use care when working around desirable plants to avoid damage.  Leaves should be sprayed until wet but not dripping to achieve good control.

Product Names: Crossbow

Rate:
1.5 to 2 quarts per acre

Time: Apply in late fall though spring (November through April) after seedlings have emerged and before rosettes have bolted.

Comments: Re-treatment may be required to achieve effective control.  Triclopyr & 2,4-D are broad leaf selective herbicides and not will harm grasses.  Use care when working around desirable plants to avoid damage.  Leaves should be sprayed until wet but not dripping to achieve good control.

Product Names: Escort

Rate:  0.75 to 1 oz per acre (0.45 to 0.6 oz acid equivalent per acre)

Time:  Apply in late fall though spring (November through April) after seedlings have emerged and before rosettes have bolted.

Comments: Metsulfuron is primarily active against broad leaf plants and generally will not harm grasses. Use a surfactant to increase effectiveness.

Product Names: Milestone

Rate:  4 to 5 fl oz per acre (1 to 1.25 oz acid equivalent per acre)

Time: Apply in late fall though spring (November through April) after seedlings have emerged and before rosettes have bolted.

Comments: Aminopyralid is broad leaf selective herbicide. Use a surfactant to increase effectiveness.  Do not compost manure or vegetation from treated sites.

Biological:

Tansy ragwort is a great example of biological control success. Three different insects are currently used to target Tansy ragwort and have shown to greatly reduce populations in Oregon. While effective, biological control methods will never result is complete eradication of a weed.  Control of Tansy ragwort using biological controls, can also take several years. As such, the use of biological controls should be combined with manual or chemical control methods when working in hay or pasture lands to prevent livestock poisoning. Populations of all biological controls will vary from year to year, so occasional resurgence of Tansy ragwort should be expected, particularly in years with very wet springs.

Ragwort flea beetle (Longitarsus jacobaeae): The adult form of this insect feeds on the leaves of the tansy ragwort plants. The larvae feed on the roots and the crown of the plants. Adults are small and light brown.  Ragwort flea beetle is the most effective of the biological controls.  Originally introduced in 1971, this species is widespread throughout Clackamas County and redistribution is not necessary.  In years with very wet springs, the impacts of the flea beetle decreases, and alternative control methods may be desired to suppress Tansy ragwort populations.

Ragwort seed fly (Botanophila seneciella syn. Pegohylemia seneciella): The larvae of this insect feeds on the seed heads of the tansy ragwort. The white larvae can be found within the seeds from late spring through summer. Adults are small black flies.  Originally released in 1966, this is the rarest and least effective of the biological controls.

Cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae): The larvae of this insect feeds on the leaves, buds and flowers of the tansy ragwort. The caterpillars are brightly colored with yellow and black stripes. The adult moth is mostly black with bright red markings on its wings.  Originally introduced in 1960, this species is widespread, and redistribution is generally not needed.  Populations levels fluctuate from year to year and generally lag behind Tansy ragwort abundance.

Disposal:

Pulled or dug up plants should be removed from pastures and hay fields.  Plants should be bagged and disposed of as garbage. For large infestations, plant may be removed from the field, and piled and covered, in an area inaccessible to livestock.  Care need to be taken to prevent dispersal of seed, as seeds can develop even after pulling.

Follow-Up:

Tansy ragwort control is manageable. Follow up treatments are necessary and continued monitoring of sites is needed.  Seeds may persist in the soil for years following treatment. If animals have been in a field where tansy is present, isolate animals for a few days to prevent the spread of seeds.

Tansy Ragwort Management Timeline

Tansy Ragwort Management Timeline

Best Management Practices:

Small Infestations:

  • Consider the land use practices on site.  Identify site specific considerations that should be taken into account before initiating control.
  • Be sure you can properly identify Tansy ragwort.  If you are unsure about a plant bring a sample to the Conservation District, and we can help to identify your particular weed.
  • Identify any native or desirable plants nearby, and take precautions to minimize and negative impact to them.
  • Plants should be treated using spot spraying techniques in early spring.  Plants may also be pulled by hand or dug up.
  • Try not to disturb soil. Replace any divots created.  Work to maintain a healthy vegetative cover to prevent other invasive weed from reestablishing.
  • Continue to monitor site throughout growing season and for a few years post treatment. Remove any new growth.

Large Infestations:

  • Consider the land use practices on site.  Identify site specific considerations that should be taken into account before initiating control.
  • Be sure you can properly identify Tansy ragwort.  If you are unsure about a plant bring a sample to the Conservation District, and we can help to identify your particular weed.
  • Identify any native or desirable plants nearby, and take precautions to minimize and negative impact to them.
  • Remove all grazing animals from infested areas.
  • Apply herbicide utilizing a spot spray or broadcast application.
  • Ensure that biocontrols are present in areas, not actively managed.
  • Try not to disturb soil. Replace any divots created. Maintain a healthy vegetative cover.
  • Continue to monitor site throughout growing season and for a few years post treatment. Remove any new growth.

Fun Facts:

  • Humans can be harmed from tansy ragwort by consuming the plant, consuming livestock suffering from liver damage from tansy ragwort, by consuming animal products such as milk (made from liver damaged cow), and honey (made with tansy ragwort nectar).
  • Tansy ragwort has, in the past, been used medicinally. This practice is not recommended due to potential liver damage.
  • In ancient times a supposed aphrodisiac was made from Tansy ragwort called satyrion.

Additional Information:

References:

  1. Bossard, C. C., J. M. Randall, & M.C. Hoshovsky.  2000.  Invasive Plants of California’s Wildlands.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.  pp 291-295.
  2. Christy, J. A., A. Kimpo, V. Marttala, P. K. Gaddis, & N. L. Christy.  2009.  Urbanizing Flora of Portland Oregon 1806-2008.  Native Plant Society of Oregon Occasional Paper 3 pg. 93.
  3. DiTomaso, J.M. & E.A. Healy.  2007.  Weeds of California and Other Western State vol 1.  University of California ANR.  pp 382-390.
  4. DiTomaso, J.M., G.B. Kyser, S.R. Oneto, R. G. Wilson, S. B. Orloff, L. W. Anderson, S. D. Wright, J.A. Roncoroni, T.L. Miller, T.S. Prather.  2013.  Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States.  Davis, CA: UC Weed Research and Information Center.  pp 438, 446.
  5. Kaufman, S. R. & W. Kaufman.  2007.  Invasive Plants: Guide to identification and the Impacts and Control of Common North American Species.  Mechanicspurg, PA: Stackpole Books. pp 145-151
  6. King County Noxious Weed Control Program.  2011.  King County Best Management Practices for Controlling Tansy Ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) http://your.kingcounty.gov/dnrp/library/water-and-land/weeds/BMPs/tansy_ragwort-control.pdf  (Retrieved April 3, 2014).
  7. Oregon Flora Project. 2013.  Oregon Plant Atlas: Senecio jacobaea.  http://www.oregonflora.org/atlas.php.  (Retrieved April 3, 2014)
  8. Peachy, E., editor.  2014.  Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook: Control of Problem Weeds.  (Retrieved April 3, 2014).
  9. Macdonald, C., & M. Russo. 1989.  Elemental Stewardship Abstract for Tansy Ragwort, (Senecio jacobaea). The Nature Conservancy.  http://www.invasive.org/gist/esadocs/documnts/senejac.pdf  (Retrieved April 3, 2014)
  10. Boersma, P.D., Reichard, S.H. & Van Buren, A.N. (Eds.). 2006.  Invasive species in the Pacific Northwest. Seattle: University of Washington Press pp.

BMP: ENGLISH IVY (Hedera helix)

 

Common names:

English Ivy

Atlantic ivy or Irish ivy

Scientific Name:

Hedera helix (syns. Hedera helix ssp. helix, Hedera canariensis, Hedera helix ssp. canariensis)

Hedera hibernica (syns. Hedera helix ssp. hibernica)

Noxious Weed Listing:

Description:

General:

English ivy is an evergreen climbing vine in the Araliaceae (Ginseng) family.  It has historically been a common garden ornamental and has more than 400 cultivars.  It has escaped cultivation to become highly invasive in forests and natural areas throughout the Pacific Northwest.  Native to Europe, these plants are characterized by long viny stems reaching up to 30 m in length, with aerial, clinging small roots. English ivy damages desirable vegetation by shading out and smothering plants.  English ivy also covers trees making them more susceptible to wind fall due to the additional weight of the ivy in the trees as well as the additional drag of the evergreen leafy vines.  English ivy has two distinct growth forms: a juvenile form, that is characterized by rapid clonal and vegetative growth, and a mature form characterized by flowering and berry production.

In Oregon, three Hedera species have been documented: English ivy (H. helix), Atlantic ivy (H. hibernica), and Persian ivy (H. colchica). However, only H. helix and H. hibernica are listed as noxious weeds in Oregon. The invasive plant commonly referred to as English ivy is actually comprised of  both H. helix and H. hibernica. Identification and differentiation between the species is complicated because there many cultivated varieties. Both H. helix and H. hibernica have been commonly sold as English ivy, but can be differentiated by leaf shape and tiny hairs on the young leaves. These two species can also be differentiated through genetic testing.

Leaves:

The leaves come in two forms: juvenile and mature.  Both leaves are evergreen, leathery, and palmately shaped. Juvenile leaves have 3-5 lobes and are slightly hairy.  Generally, the lobes on H. helix are deeper than H. hibernica, but the lobes can vary. The leaves of mature ivy are ovate to diamond shaped, unlobed or slightly lobed, darker green and more leathery. On both growth forms, the leaves alternate along the vines and are up to 10 cm long. Leaves can be toxic to humans and cattle if ingested.  Leaves can also cause contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals.

Flowers

English ivy generally will only flower under conditions with adequate light and optimal nutrients.  Flowers are only produced high in the tree canopy within infested forests, or along steep slopes.  English ivy flowers in the fall and are pollinated by insects.  Adult plants flower in clusters. The flowers are five petaled, greenish to white in coloration and are only 3-5 mm long.

Fruits

Fruits develop as fleshy, dark blue to black berries that ripen in spring.  Thousands of fruits can be produced by an adult plant each year.  English ivy berries, particularly when underdeveloped, can be toxic to humans and cattle if ingested. These fruits are 5-10 mm in size and hold 1-3 seeds. Approximately 70% of the seeds produced are viable.

Roots

The juvenile English ivy plants have adventitious roots at their nodes.  Roots are generally shallowly rooted, but robust.  English ivy also forms aerial, clinging rootlets, allowing it to adhere and climb vertically.  Adult English ivy plants form a woody base.

Reproduction:

English ivy reproduces both from mature seeds as well as from root-like stems and sprouting fragments.  The berries of English ivy are ingested by birds and the seeds can be dispersed great distances from parent plants. New plants can regenerate from stems and fragments from both the mature and juvenile growth forms. Regenerating plants maintain the growth form of their parents, such that plants formed from stem regeneration of adult form plants will keep adult characteristics.  Once established juvenile plants can live up to 10 years before reaching  maturation.   English ivy plants can live up to 100 years or longer with  one plant in England being documented at more than 400 years in age.

Habitat:

The areas most infested by English ivy are urban natural areas, disturbed forests, woodlands, and along stream corridors.  Plants grown in moist soils with summer shade and winter sunlight will flourish.  Urban forest and natural areas are especially impacted as a result of repeated reinfestation from garden escapees.

Impacts:

  • Weighs down and harms large canopy trees making them more susceptible to wind throw
  • Smothers and displaces forest floor vegetation.
  • Degrades wildlife habit and reduces the diversity of animals in infested areas.
  • Toxic berries and leaves can cause injury.
  • Very invasive with rapid and intense vegetative growth, that causes rapid transformation of a site.
  • Seeds disperse great distances, making containment of infestations very difficult.
  • Can be a reservoir for bacterial leaf scorch harmful to elms, oaks, and maples.
  • Vines tangle among native understory making removal difficult.
  • Increases erosion due to displacement of native species and a shallow root system.

Introduction:

The original introduction of English ivy to the United States is believed to have been by European immigrants during colonial times as a garden ornamental. The earliest record of English ivy in North America dates to 1727.  Introduction to the Portland area occurred between 1875 and 1899 (Christy et al., 2009).

Distribution:

Clackamas County:

English ivy can be found throughout Clackamas County.  It is very widespread and directly impacts properties throughout the county.  As an ubiquitous weed this is not a species that is actively surveyed and the mapped distributions do not represent the full extent of the English ivy population in Clackamas County.

State of Oregon:

United States:

Management:

Strategy:

The management of invasive weeds is best served through a process know as Integrated Pest Management (IPM).  IPM is a weed management methodology that utilizes:

  • Management thresholds to determine when and if to initiate control,
  • The ecology and life history characteristics of the targeted invasive weed,
  • Site specific conditions and land use considerations to inform management practices,
  • The effectiveness and efficiency of various control methods.

An IPM based strategy ensures the maximum effectiveness of treatment measures.  IPM strategies typically use more than one management method to target one or more susceptible life stages.  It should be adaptive to site conditions in the field and to the response of a plant to management.  The utilization of multiple management tools inherently reduces the use of herbicides in a management plan.  The IPM process ultimately provides a framework for the establishment of Best Management Practices (BMP) which outlines the best approach for controlling a weed particular infestation.

Manual:

English ivy is often best controlled using manual control methods.  The waxy leaves of English ivy and its ability to regenerate from stems and fragments, make it resistant to chemical and mechanical control methods.  While effective the removal of English ivy can be time consuming and labor intensive.  As such, persistence is possibly the most important factor in determining the success of your treatments.  It has been suggested that an acre of English ivy dominated forest requires more than 300 man hours for an initial clearing and continued maintenance to restore a site. So restoration efforts should plant their work accoridingly

The first step is to choose an area, that can receive repeated control efforts.  Prioritize your site.  Choose a portion of your management area that is of highest priority, or work from a relatively intact area, and slowly expand your treatments systematically outward.  Look at the concentration and location of the ivy, the landscape, soil moisture, abundance of native plants in the area as well as the number and skill of workers assisting.  Before handling English ivy be sure to wear long sleeves, long pants, and gloves to protect yourself from potential dermatitis.  Utilize tools such as shovels, rakes, mattocks, and weed wrenches to assist in removal of the roots.  Saws, loppers, and hand clippers can be used to cut vines.

In locations where native plants are abundant, the preferred practice is hand removal.  Vines growing on trees should be targeted first to prevent flowering and seed set, and to preserve canopy trees on site.  Vines on trees should be cut using a saw, loppers or hand clippers around the entire base of the tree and also at a comfortable arm reach then removed from the tree. Leave the remaining ivy above the cut line to dry out and fall down on its own.  All ivy should be removed within, a minimum of 3 feet around the trunk to better protect the tree.  Flowering or seeding plants should be removed to prevent seeding or regeneration.  For ground ivy control should focus on one location, pulling every vine and root up within reaching distance, before moving to a new location.  Working systematically from a core area.   Manual control of English ivy is best done in the fall and winter, when the ground is soft and plants are not seeding.

When few native plants reside on the property and there is sufficient workers, English ivy can be removed in large mats using a technique called the ‘Log Roll’.  This technique relies upon first defining a treatment area.  The perimeter of the area is cut and a line of workers pull the edge of the mat, rolling vines and roots of the ivy on top of itself. It is important to shake the roots to remove soil.  The roll should then be mulched in place to prevent resprouting.  Workers should also follow up in the cleared site to remove any missed roots. This practice can be done on both flat ground and on hillsides. Soils with a higher water content allows for an easier pull.

Additional tips to reduce erosion and minimize damage to native plants:

  • Remove as much of the root system as possible by pulling the vine directly where the root comes out of the ground
  • Minimize trampling and churning of the soil
  • Protect native plants that are present through careful and conscientious pulling and walking
  • Be thorough, by completely clearing an area before moving on

Mechanical:

English ivy can be mowed or cut but this is generally not recommended due to it’s ability to regenerate following cutting.

Cultural:

Grazing has been used to defoliate large infestations of English ivy.  Goats and sheep will graze the ivy leaves, but plants will readily resprout following grazing.  As such, grazing animals must be rotated repeatedly back onsite to suppress regrowth.  English ivy is generally not favored by grazing animals, so co-occurring native are usually grazed more strongly than the ivy itself.  As such, grazing is generally considered to be ineffective, or of limited use.  Mature ivy plants are also generally found growing above the browse line, so manual removal of tree ivy is required in conjunction with any grazing strategy.

English ivy is fire resistant and doesn’t carry a fire well.    Repeated torching of ivy plants will cause cellular damage and dieback.  With persistence this method will exhaust nutrients as the English ivy resprouts, but it is generally inefficient compared to other methods.  As such this method is generally not recommended.

Chemical:

An effective chemical control of English ivy is dependent on a few variables including timing, sensible application, and the proper mixture of chemicals. The timing is important to limit damage to native plants. Herbicide application during dry and sunny periods in late winter can be an effective chemical control on English ivy. The ivy is still alive and may still be growing in the winter while most native plants are dormant and protected.  Herbicide has shown to be successful when applied directly to cut stems specifically around a tree trunk.

Foliar application of herbicides is deterred by the waxy coating on the leaves. This is especially true for older/mature leaves and application during the growing season.  This leads to runoff of herbicide onto nearby native plants.  A fatty acid can be applied before or with the herbicide application to increase absorption into the leaves.

Widespread chemical control of English ivy is not suggested and should only to be considered in areas completely dominated by ivy or on difficult sites were manual control methods may be impractical or dangerous.

Before you Start:

  • Before purchasing any herbicide product it is important to read the label.  The label is the Law.  Carefully review all parts of the label even if you have used the product before.  Select a product that is most appropriate for your site.  If you have questions, ask your vendor before purchasing a product.
  • When selecting herbicides always use a product appropriately labeled for your site. Follow label recommendations and restrictions at all times.  If any information provided here contradicts the label, the label takes precedence.  Always follow the label!
  • Protect yourself.  Always wear the recommended protective clothing identified on your label and shower after use.
  • When applying herbicides use spot spray techniques whenever possible to avoid harming non-target plants.
  • Do not apply during windy or breezy conditions that may result in drift to non-target plants
  • Avoid spraying near water.  Hand-pull in these areas, to protect aquatic and riparian plants and wildlife.
  • Avoid exposure to pets, pollinators, and wildlife.  Remove animals from treatment areas to avoid exposure to herbicides. Follow the reentry instructions on your herbicide label and keep pets out of the area until the herbicides have dried and it is safe to return.  Avoid spraying when insects and animals are active.  Avoid spraying blooming plants to minimize an effects to bees and other pollinators.
  • Be sure to store any chemicals out of the reach of children and pets to keep your family safe.
  • Product labels and formulations change regularly.  Check the Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook and the label for current control recommendations.

Herbicides:

The mention of any brand name product is not, and should not be construed as an endorsement for that product.  They are included here only for educational purposes.  Suggested rates are generalized by active ingredient.  Specific rates will vary between products.  Be sure to review the label before application and use the recommended label rate at all times.

Active Ingredients

Product Names: Accord, Aquamaster, Rodeo, Roundup, and various others

Rate:
Spot treat: use 2% to 5% v/v solution in water, with a non-ionic surfactant
Low volume/thin line: 10% v/v solutions in water.
Cut stump: 25% v/v solutions in water.

Time: Apply when actively growing in late summer early fall.  Application can also be made on sunny winter days to avoid harming co-occurring natives. Cut stump applications should be made directly after cutting and during dormant season for best results.

Comments: Wait four months after foliar treatment before cutting again. For cut stump application, cut stems horizontally or at ground level. Apply solution directly after cut. Treatment controls most reprouts. Glyphosate is not selective and will harm grasses.  Use care when working around desirable plants to avoid damage.  Leaves should be sprayed until wet but not dripping to achieve good control.

Product Names: Garlon 3A, Garlon 4 Ultra (triclopyr ester), Pathfinder II

Rate:
Spot treat: 2 to 5% v/v solution in water with a non-ionic surfactant.
Low volume/thin line: 10% v/v solution plus 20% basal oil concentrate in water.
Cut stump: 20% v/v solution in water.

Time: Apply post emergence in late summer to early fall, (August – October) when plants are growing rapidly. Cut stump applications should be made directly after cut and during dormant season for best results.

Comments: For cut stem treatment, follow application description in Glyphosate. Triclopyr is selective and will harm desirable broad leaf plants, trees, and shrubs.  Use care when working around desirable plants to avoid damage.  Leaves should be sprayed until wet but not dripping to achieve good control.  Triclopyr ester formulations may volatilize under warm temperatures.

Product Names: Tordon 22K

Rate:
Broadcast:  3-4 pints/acre (0.75 to 1 lb a.e/acre) plus .25 to .5% v/v surfactant

Time: Apply post emergence in late summer to early fall, (August – October) when plants are growing rapidly at or beyond early to full bloom stage.

Comments: Picloram can have long term soil activity and has shown to move with groundwater.  It should not be used around trees because of root uptake.  Use care when working around desirable plants to avoid damage.  Leaves should be sprayed until wet but not dripping to achieve good control. Restricted herbicide.

Product Names: Arsenal, Habitat, Stalker, Chopper, Polaris

Rate:
Spot treat: 1 to 2% v/v solution plus .25 to .5% surfactant v/v in water.
Low volume/thin line: 10% v/v solution plus 20% ethylated crop oil in water.
Cut stump: 20% v/v solution in water plus 20% ethylated crop oil in water.

Time: Apply post emergence in late summer to early fall when plant is growing rapidly.

Comments: Imazapyr exhibits some residual effects in the soil and may result in bare ground around plants after treatment. Care should be taken when replanting.  Cut stump applications should be made directly after cutting and during dormant season for best results.

Product Names: Tank Mixed

Rate:
Spot treat: 4% v/v Glyphosate solution + 2% v/v Triclopyr solution, with 1-2% non-ionic surfactant v/v in water.

Time: Apply in late summer with a late fall follow up.

Comments: Treat when temperatures are above 65 F when no rain is expected for 2-3 days.

Biological:

There are no effective biological control agents available for English ivy.

Disposal:

There are many ways to dispose of English ivy when clearing your property. For small infestations, bagging up pulled plants is the best practice if possible.  For larger infestations, pile up the debris and let it dry out.  Placing a tarp under the pile will help prevent resprouting.  Piles can also be covered to speed up drying and decompositions.  Large debris piles can create dead spots, so placement of piles should be placed to minimize the impact to desirable vegetation.  Under dry conditions, plants can be chopped into a mulch and spread over the area for ground cover and nutrients, but be careful with this method as covering the ground will reduce visibility of missed/live roots.

Follow-Up:

Diligence is the most important aspect for controlling English Ivy.  Ivy plants will readily resprout from any roots left remaining, so repeated follow-up is required. An herbicide application in summer has shown to be the most effective after a treatment. Re-treatment may be required to achieve effective control.  The seed may persist in the soil for years following treatment, or arrive on site from adjacent and nearby infestations.

Best Management Practices:

Monoculture Infestations:

  • Consider the land use practices on site.  Identify, any site specific considerations that should be taken into account before initiating control.
  • Be sure you can properly identify English ivy.  If you are unsure about your weed bring a sample to the Conservation District, and we can help to identify your particular weed.
  • Identify any native or desirable plants nearby, and take precautions to minimize and negative impact to them.
  • Herbicide application is often the best approach with respect to cost, time, and erosion protection for large ivy infestations with few desirable plants.
  • Winter applications have shown to be effective using, while minimizing the impact to native, but spray only during a winter weather is above 55 F, and no preceipataion is expected for at least three days.  Otherwise plan treatments for late summer.
  • Follow-up on site 6-12 months afterward can be a re-treatment of herbicide, spot spray herbicide application or spot manual removal.
  • Replant site with site appropriate native vegetation as soon as possible. Grass seed can be spread to stabilize soil in between removal and plantings.
  • Continue to monitor the site for regrowth and treat any new infestations.

Small Infestations within native or desirable vegetation:

  • Consider the land use practices on site.  Identify, any site specific considerations that should be taken into account before initiating control.
  • Be sure you can properly identify English ivy.  If you are unsure about your weed bring a sample to the Conservation District, and we can help to identify your particular weed.
  • Identify any native or desirable plants nearby, and take precautions to minimize and negative impact to them.
  • A manual approach is best with limited spot spray application of herbicide in dense patches within native vegetation.
  • Pull plants in winter and spring when the soil is moist and the ivy is prominent.
  • Replanting is not as necessary in small infestations within native vegetation because the natives will expand into open areas. If large gaps are present, additional plantings may be beneficial.
  • Continue to monitor the site for regrowth and treat any new infestations as they occur.

Fun Facts:

  • Juvenile plants can climb as much as 30 ft per year.
  • Leaves and berries used to be ate as an expectorant.
  • A leaf reduction can be used to restore dark fabrics or dye hair and twigs can create yellow and brown dye.
  • Medicinally used since ancient times to treat rheumatism, toothache, bronchitis, and many skin problems including burns, infections and cellulite.
  • Ivy has been long used in England as decorations during the Christmas season.

Additional Information:

References:

  1. Bossard, C. C., J. M. Randall, & M.C. Hoshovsky.  2000.  Invasive Plants of California’s Wildlands.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.  pp 277-281.
  2. Christy, J. A., A. Kimpo, V. Marttala, P. K. Gaddis, & N. L. Christy.  2009.  Urbanizing Flora of Portland Oregon 1806-2008.  Native Plant Society of Oregon Occasional Paper 3 pg. 218.
  3. DiTomaso, J.M. & E.A. Healy.  2007.  Weeds of California and Other Western State vol 2.  University of California ANR.  pp 1426-1434.
  4. DiTomaso, J.M., G.B. Kyser, S.R. Oneto, R. G. Wilson, S. B. Orloff, L. W. Anderson, S. D. Wright, J.A. Roncoroni, T.L. Miller, T.S. Prather.  2013.  Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States.  Davis, CA: UC Weed Research and Information Center.  pp 341-343.
  5. Holloran, P., A. Mackenzie, S Farrell, D. Johnson.  2004.  The Weed Workers Handbook: A Guide to Techniques for Removing Bay Area Invasive Plants.  Berkeley, CA: California Invasive Plant Council.  pp 60-61
  6. Kaufman, S. R. & W. Kaufman.  2007.  Invasive Plants: Guide to identification and the Impacts and Control of Common North American Species.  Mechanicspurg, PA: Stackpole Books. pp 145-151
  7. King County Noxious Weed Control Program.  2011.  English ivy identification (Hedera helix) http://www.kingcounty.gov/environment/animalsAndPlants/noxious-weeds/weed-identification/english-ivy.aspx  (Retrieved Jan 21, 2014).
  8. Oregon Flora Project. 2013.  Oregon Plant Atlas: Hedera helix.  http://www.oregonflora.org/atlas.php.  (Retrieved Jan 21, 2014)
  9. Peachy, E., D. Ball, A. Hulting, T. Miller, D. Morishita, P. Hutchinson. eds.  2013.  Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook: Control of Problem Weeds.  (Retrieved Jany 21, 2014).
  10. Soll, J. 2004.  Controlling English Ivy (Hedera helix) in the Pacific Northwest. The Nature Conservancy.  http://www.invasive.org/gist/moredocs/hedhel02.pdf   (Retrieved Jan 21, 2014)

BMP: SCOTCH BROOM (Cytisus scoparius)

Common name:

Scotch broom, Scot’s broom, English broom

Scientific Name:

Cytisus scoparius (syns. Sarothamnus scoparius, Spartium scoparium)

Noxious Weed Listing:

Description:

General:

Scotch broom is a fast growing shrub in the Fabaceae (pea) family, characterized by its masses of yellow flowers.  It grows upright on young green, 5-angled stems which are hairy.  Broom forms dense stands and are shade intolerant.  Mature plants can reach 10 feet in height although most plants are typically 3-5 feet tall. Scotch broom is deciduous nitrogen fixing plant. Scotch broom is an invasive plant found in low elevations from British Columbia to California.

Leaves:

The leaves of Scotch broom are alternate and compound consisting of three oblong leaflets.  Very few leaves on stems. New twigs may only have one leaflet. Leaflets are small 5-20 mm long.  The leaflets are dark green and fleshy and serrated along their margin.  The underside of the leaflets are covered by flattened, short hairs while the upper surface is smooth.

Flowers

The flowers are pea-like; upper and lower curved petal have wing petals on each side. Scotch broom flowers are yellow to partially to complete red in color. Small, only 1-2.5 cm. The stamens are fused.  Plants flower from April to June.

Fruits

Fruits develop as seed pods that mature in June-July. Seed pods are flat, 2-5 cm long, smooth with long silky hairs which turn dark brown to black when mature. Seeds are small 2mm, long and shinny, brown to black in color with a whitish appendage (fatty deposit) which attracts ants and some birds.  3-12 seeds found within each pod.

Roots

The Scotch broom plants form deep, branched taproots with fine roots associated with nitrogen fixation. New shoots can grow from the crown when plants are cut above the crown.

Reproduction:

Scotch broom reproduces by seed.  Seeds are dispersed when pods dry, split in half and twist. This action can send seeds up to 3 meters but is often just a short distance from the plant.  A variety of ants are attracted to the white seed appendages and disperse the seeds further. Seeds have a hard coating which allows them to survive up to 30 years in the field. Scotch broom produce seed at 2 or 3 years but are in full reproduction at 3-5 years lasting until year 9. Up to 3500 pods can be produced from one adult shrub.  Scotch broom lives for 15-20 years.

Habitat:

The areas most infested by Scotch broom are disturbed sites,  grasslands, open forests, and riparian corridors. The plant likes coastal areas and low elevations in dry conditions with plenty of sunshine. Scotch broom flourishes in infertile soil because it is a nitrogen fixing plant which allows it to grow where many plants fail to flourish.  Scotch broom likes sandy, acidic and dry soil.

Impacts:

  • Grows rapidly and forms dense stands.
  • Out-competes native plants by shading out and by changing soil fertility.
  • Prevents reforestation by out-competing conifer seedlings.
  • Dramatically increases the hazard and intensity of fires
  • Displaces native plants and wildlife.

Introduction:

The original introduction of Scotch broom to Oregon is believed to have occurred between 1875 and 1899 (Christy et al., 2009). The plant is native to Europe and North Africa and was commonly introduced by European settlers to remind them of their home but quickly escaped cultivation. It was also used to stabilize soil especially along roadways before the realization of its invasive characteristics. Due to its showy flowers, Scotch broom was commonly produced in the horticultural trade where many varieties have been developed.

Distribution:

Clackamas County:

Scotch broom can be found throughout Clackamas County.  It is very widespread and directly impacts properties throughout the county.  As an ubiquitous weed this is not a species that is actively surveyed and the mapped distributions do not represent the full extent of the Scotch broom population in Clackamas County.

State of Oregon:

United States:

Management:

Strategy:

The management of invasive weeds is best served through a process know as Integrated Pest Management (IPM).  IPM is a weed management methodology that utilizes:

  • Management thresholds to determine when and if to initiate control,
  • The ecology and life history characteristics of the targeted invasive weed,
  • Site specific conditions and land use considerations to inform management practices,
  • The effectiveness and efficiency of various control methods.

An IPM based strategy ensures the maximum effectiveness of treatment measures.  IPM strategies typically use more than one management method to target one or more susceptible life stages.  It is adaptive to site conditions in the field and to the response of a plant to management.  The utilization of multiple management tools also inherently reduces the use of herbicides in a management plan.   The IPM process ultimately provides a framework for the establishment of Best Management Practices (BMP) which outlines the best approach for controlling a weed particular infestation.

Manual:

The control of Scotch broom can be a difficult task.  The long lived seeds, long growing season, aggressive roots, thick stands and the ability to resprout from young stumps or root crowns make Scotch broom difficult to control .

Manual removal of Scotch broom can be an effective control option especially for smaller infestations, but its is labor intensive.  Seedling and small shrubs can be hand pulled between January and May. Pulling when the soil is moist will make is easier to remove the roots and put less strain on the worker. All plants and roots need to be removed to reduce regrowth. Continual manual removal, every year pulling the next generation, is one of the most effective controls for Scotch broom. A weed wrench, shovel or hoe can be used to assist with root removal.

While manual removal can be an effective treatment, it can cause heavy soil disturbances on site. Soil disturbance can  bring broom seeds deep in the soil to the surface creating a new generation of growth.

For old established stands, cut Scotch broom between ground level and three inches using loppers or a saw during the dry season (July to August). Try to cut before seed pods mature to limit spread.

Cutting alone during the right time can be a useful management tool to prevent seeding.  Young Scotch broom plants will resprout following cutting from above the root crowns.  Older plants generally will not resprout following a cutting.  Large stands of resprouting plants following cutting are best controlled with a targeted herbicide application.

Mechanical:

Large infestations of Scotch broom can be removed through mowing.  Like cutting, brush mowing alone won’t kill the broom.  Mowing should be done between flowering and seed maturity and must be repeated at regular intervals to exhaust plant.  Mowing is not a very effective control by itself, however when used in conjunction with herbicide application it can be very effective.
Mowing equipment can transport seeds if not cleaned before leaving site and if plants are cut during seed production.

Cultural:

Burning can be an effective tool to remove debris, but it will not eliminate Scotch broom.  Other management such as crown removal or herbicide application is required to achieve control.  The available fuels in dense broom stands can also be substantial, so care needs to be taken to keep fire contained.  As such fire is generally not a recommended control measure.  You should check with your local Fire District or the Oregon Department of Forestry for rules and recommendations.

Grazing by goats is a potential method for controlling Scotch broom.  Unfortunately, broom plants can be toxic to both humans and livestock which limits other grazing activity. Goats confined to a small area will eat the resprouting Scotch broom after treatment.

Chemical:

Chemical control is an effective tool to control large stands of Scotch broom.  Continued treatment and monitoring will be required due to the copious number of seedlings emerging from the seedbank.    Scotch broom is susceptible to several systemic herbicides. Plants should not be mowed or cut after application  for a minimum of two weeks to allow herbicide to reach the roots. Scotch broom flowers can hinder herbicide application by not allowing the chemical to reach other areas of the plant. Large treated/dead stands of brooms are a fire hazard and need to be monitored and removed if necessary.

Before you Start:

  • Before purchasing any herbicide product it is important to read the label.  The label is the Law.  Carefully review all parts of the label even if you have used the product before.  Select a product that is most appropriate for your site.  If you have questions, ask your vendor before purchasing a product.
  • When selecting herbicides always use a product appropriately labeled for your site. Follow label recommendations and restrictions at all times.  If any information provided here contradicts the label, the label takes precedence.  Always follow the label!
  • Protect yourself.  Always wear the recommended protective clothing identified on your label and shower after use.
  • When applying herbicides use spot spray techniques whenever possible to avoid harming non-target plants.
  • Do not apply during windy or breezy conditions that may result in drift to non-target plants
  • Avoid spraying near water.  Hand-pull in these areas, to protect aquatic and riparian plants and wildlife.
  • Avoid exposure to pets, pollinators, and wildlife.  Remove animals from treatment areas to avoid exposure to herbicides. Follow the reentry instructions on your herbicide label and keep pets out of the area until the herbicides have dried.  Avoid spraying when insects and animals are active.  Avoid spraying blooming plants to minimize an effects to bees and pollinators.
  • Be sure to store any chemicals, out of the reach of children and pets to keep your family safe.
  • Product labels and formulations change regularly.  Check the Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook and the label for current control recommendations.

Herbicides:

The mention of any brand name product is not, and should not be construed as an endorsement for that product.  They are included here only for educational purposes.  Suggested rates are generalized by active ingredient.  Specific rates will vary between products.  Be sure to review the label before application and use the recommended label rate at all times.

Active Ingredients

Product Names: Accord, Aquamaster, Rodeo, Roundup, XRT II, and various others

Rate:
Spot treat: use 1.5% to 2% v/v solutions.
Cut stump: 25% v/v (up to 50% can reduce resprouting)

Time: Foliar application in late summer or early fall. Cut stump application again in late summer to early fall, immediately after cutting.

Comments: Re-treatment may be required to achieve effective control.  Glyphosate is not selective and will harm grasses.  Use care when working around desirable plants to avoid damage.  Leaves should be sprayed until wet but not dripping to achieve good control. Cut stems horizontally at or near ground level and immediately apply herbicide.

Product Names: Garlon 4 (triclopyr ester),  Garlon 3A, Element 3A (triclopyr amine), Pathfinder II

Rate:
Broadcast: Triclopyr ester- 2 – 3 qts/acre (1 – 1.5 at ae/acre), Triclopyr amine- 3 – 4 qts/acre (1.125 – 1.5 qt ae/acre)
Spot treat: Triclopyr ester use 0.75% to 1% v/v solution, Triclopyr amine use 1% – 1.5% v/v solution plus 0.25% – 0.5%  v/v surfactant
Basal Bark: Triclopyr ester- use 20% v/v solution ethylated crop oil and water
Cut stump: Triclopyr amine-50% in water

Time: Apply post emergence when plants are growing rapidly in the spring and again in the fall. Applications should be made before a killing frost.

Comments: Re-treatment may be required to achieve effective control.  Triclopyr is selective and will not harm grasses but will harm desirable broad leaf plants, trees, and shrubs.  Use care when working around desirable plants to avoid damage.  Leaves should be sprayed until wet but not dripping to achieve good control.  Triclopyr ester formulations may volatilize under warm temperatures.

Product Names: Crossbow (Triclopyr + 2, 4D)

Rate:
Spot treat: 0.5% to 1.5% v/v solution

Time: Apply post emergence when plants are growing rapidly in the spring and again in the fall. Applications should be made before a killing frost.

Comments: Re-treatment may be required to achieve effective control.  Triclopyr + 2, 4D is a selective and will harm grasses, but may damage desirable broad leaf plants, trees, and shrubs.  Use care when working around desirable plants to avoid damage.  Leaves should be sprayed until wet but not dripping to achieve good control.  Check label for specific warnings and recommendations.

Product Names: Arsenal, Habitat, Stalker, Chopper, Polaris

Rate:
Spot treat: 1 to 2% v/v solution plus 0.25 to 0.5% surfactant v/v
Cut stump: 20% v/v solution in water plus 20% ethylated crop oil
Basal bark: 20% v/v solution in water plus 20% ethylated crop oil

Time: Apply post emergence in late summer to early fall when plant is growing rapidly. Best when used in late summer to early fall.

Comments: Imazapyr is a soil residual herbicide and may result in bare ground around plants after treatment.

Product Names: Tordon 22K

Rate:
Broadcast:  2 pints/acre (non-cropland)  or 1 qt/acre (range land) plus 0.25 to 0.5% v/v surfactant

Time: Apply post emergence in spring and again in fall when plants are growing rapidly at or beyond early to full bloom stage.

Comments: Picloram can cause long term soil activity and should not be used around trees because of root uptake.  Use care when working around desirable plants to avoid damage.  Leaves should be sprayed until wet but not dripping to achieve good control. Restricted herbicide: not registered in California.

Biological:

There are several insects which feed on the seeds and leaves of Scotch broom.  Scotch broom bruchid (Bruchidius villosus), Scotch broom seed weevils (Exapion fuscirostre or Aprion fuscirostre), twig mining moth (Leucoptera sartifolilella), Eriophyid gall mite (Aceria genistae) and the shoot tip leaf moth (Agonopterix nervosa) are known to damage the Scotch broom plants. These bugs will not eradicate an infestation, they have poor to fair  effectiveness controlling a stand and any results might not be seen for up to 7 years.

Disposal:

Scotch broom plants that have not gone to seed are able to be disposed of in regular household trash cans or in yard debris containers. Cut plants can be left on site but can be a fire hazard. Scotch broom plants that have gone to seed should be left on site to minimize the spread of the seeds, or piled on tarps and bagged before being moved off site. Plant debris can also be burned on site with appropriate safety measures and permits. You should check with your local Fire District or the Oregon Department of Forestry for rules and recommendations.

Follow-Up:

Diligence is the most important aspect for controlling Scotch broom.  New  broom plants will germinate from the seed bank living in the soil even after years following treatments and soil disturbances, so repeated follow-up is required.

Best Management Practices:

Small Infestations:

  • Consider the land use practices on site.  Identify, any site specific considerations that should be taken into account before initiating control.
  • Be sure you can properly identify Scotch broom.  If you are unsure about your weed bring a sample to the Conservation District, and we can help to identify your particular weed.
  • Identify any native or desirable plants nearby, and take precautions to minimize any negative impact to them.
  • Manual removal is very effective at controlling small infestations of Scotch broom (plants under 1″).  Plants can be pulled or dug up when soil is moist (fall through spring).
  • Replace divots and holes created.
  • Spot spray herbicide appropriately.
  • Monitor the site for regrowth, and remove new sprouts as soon as they appear.
  • Do not leave soil bare, mulch or replant to stabilize soil and compete with broom regrowth.
  • Replant heavily infested areas to increase shade and suppress new seedlings.

Large Infestations:

  • Consider the land use practices on site.  Identify, any site specific considerations that should be taken into account before initiating control.
  • Be sure you can properly identify Scotch broom.  If you are unsure about your weed bring a sample to the Conservation District, and we can help to identify your particular weed.
  • Identify any native or desirable plants nearby, and take precautions to minimize any negative impact to them.
  • Mow or cut down the Scotch broom using a brush mower or chain saw to remove large well established individuals.
  • Apply herbicides to cut stems to prevent regrowth.
  • Follow up with a broadcast or spot herbicide application to treat seedlings and resprouting plants.
  • Several applications over several years will be needed to suppress and eradicate Scotch broom infestations.
  • Continue to monitor the site for regrowth and treat any new infestations.
  • Replant heavily infested areas to increase shade and suppress new seedlings.

Fun Facts:

  • Scotch broom gets its name because the plant is historically used in Scotland to make brooms.
  • Photosynthesis occurs in the green stems and not in the leaves (like most plants).
  • Used to make cloth, coffee and as a diuretic.
  • Scotch broom contains chemicals (toxic alkaloids sparteine and isosparteine) that affects heart rhythm and one that might increase body water loss. (Unsafe to use medicinally)

Additional Information:

References:

  1. Bossard, C. C., J. M. Randall, & M.C. Hoshovsky.  2000.  Invasive Plants of California’s Wildlands.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.  pp 277-281.
  2. Christy, J. A., A. Kimpo, V. Marttala, P. K. Gaddis, & N. L. Christy.  2009.  Urbanizing Flora of Portland Oregon 1806-2008.  Native Plant Society of Oregon Occasional Paper 3 pg. 218.
  3. DiTomaso, J.M. & E.A. Healy.  2007.  Weeds of California and Other Western State vol 2.  University of California ANR.  pp 1426-1434.
  4. DiTomaso, J.M., G.B. Kyser, S.R. Oneto, R. G. Wilson, S. B. Orloff, L. W. Anderson, S. D. Wright, J.A. Roncoroni, T.L. Miller, T.S. Prather.  2013.  Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States.  Davis, CA: UC Weed Research and Information Center.  pp 341-343.
  5. Holloran, P., A. Mackenzie, S Farrell, D. Johnson.  2004.  The Weed Workers Handbook: A Guide to Techniques for Removing Bay Area Invasive Plants.  Berkeley, CA: California Invasive Plant Council.  pp 60-61
  6. Kaufman, S. R. & W. Kaufman.  2007.  Invasive Plants: Guide to identification and the Impacts and Control of Common North American Species.  Mechanicspurg, PA: Stackpole Books. pp 145-151
  7. King County Noxious Weed Control Program.  2011.  King County Best Management Practices for Controlling Scotch Broom, Scot’s Broom (Cytisus scoparius).  http://your.kingcounty.gov/dnrp/library/water-and-land/weeds/BMPs/Scotch-Broom-Control.pdf  (Retrieved Feb 25, 2016).
  8. Oregon Flora Project. 2013.  Oregon Plant Atlas: Scotch broom.  http://www.oregonflora.org/atlas.php.  (Retrieved Feb 25, 2016)
  9. Peachy, E., D. Ball, A. Hulting, T. Miller, D. Morishita, P. Hutchinson. eds.  2013.  Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook: Control of Problem Weeds.  (Retrieved Feb 25, 2016).
  10. Hoshovsky, M. 2001.  Element Stewardship Abstract for Cytisus scoparius and Genista monspessulanus Scotch Broom, French Broom.  The Nature Conservancy.  http://www.invasive.org/weedcd/pdfs/tncweeds/cytisco.pdf   (Retrieved Feb 25, 2016)

BMP: HIMALAYAN BLACKBERRY (Rubus bifrons)

Common name:

Himalayan Blackberry, Armenian Blackberry

Scientific Name:

Rubus bifrons (syns. Rubus armeniacus, Rubus discolor, Rubus procerus)

Noxious Weed Listing:

Description:

General:

Himalayan Blackberry is a tall semi-woody shrub, characterized by thorny stems and edible fruits.  It grows upright on open ground, and will climb over and trail over other vegetation.  Mature plants can reach 15 feet in height. The canes of Himalayan blackberry can reach lengths of 40 feet and are typically green to deep red in color.  Himalayan blackberry forms dense, nearly impenetrable thickets.  In some instance canes can reach densities of more than 500 canes per square yard.  The canes of Himalayan blackberry typically last only three years before dying off, so dense thickets are often dominated by old canes.

Leaves:

The leaves of Himalayan blackberry are palmate and compound consisting of three to five leaflets.  The leaflets are dark green and fleshy and serrated along their margin.  The underside of the leaves are white in appearance and are covered by minute hairs. A row of small thorns also grows along the underside of the central vein of the leaf.

Flowers

The flowers are five petaled and are white to pink in coloration.  The stamens and ovaries are abundant.  Plants flower from April to August in our area.

Fruits

Fruits develop as green drupe-like berries that ripen into dark purple to black berries in summer.  The fruits are edible up to an inch in length, and widely consumed by wildlife and foragers.

Roots

The Himalayan blackberry plants form enlarged root crowns with numerous buds that develop into new canes.  The also have lateral roots that can reach 30 feet in length and extend 2-3 feet deep.

Reproduction:

Himalayan blackberry reproduces both by seed and vegetatively.  The berries produced are favored by many bird and mammal species, and the seeds can be deposited great distances from parent plants.  Many of the seeds may remain dormant in the soil for several years after dispersal.  Once a plant becomes established, it spreads locally through expanding roots and rhizomes.  The canes of adult blackberry plants will also root at the nodes to form daughter plants along its margin.

Habitat:

The areas most infested by Himalayan blackberry are disturbed sites and along stream corridors.  Blackberry flourishes on open ground, and on unmanaged sites.  Plants grown in wet soils tend to be dense and more robust.  Due to the movement by birds, Himalayan blackberry also is commonly found under perching sites, such as along fence rows and under power lines.

Impacts:

  • Himalayan blackberry is a highly invasive plant that replaces native vegetation.
  • The canes of blackberry can build up substantial litter layer which may serve as fuels for wildfire.
  • The thorns of the blackberry plants can limit the access of a site by both animals and people.
  • While dense thickets can be useful to some wildlife species, the diversity of habitats is greatly diminished, thereby diminishing the usability of a site to only a few species.

Introduction:

The first herbarium record for Himalayan Blackberry in Oregon was collected in Marion County in 1922 (Oregon Flora, 2013).  The original introduction of Himalayan blackberry to Oregon is believed to have occurred between 1875 and 1899, but was first noted in our area in 1903.  By 1920 it was considered widespread throughout the Willamette Valley (Christy et al., 2009).

Distribution:

Clackamas County:

Himalayan Blackberry can be found throughout Clackamas County.  It is very widespread and directly impacts properties throughout the county.  As an ubiquitous weed this is not a species that is actively surveyed and the mapped distributions do not represent the full extent of the Himalayan blackberry population in Clackamas County.

State of Oregon:

United States:

Management:

Strategy:

The management of invasive weeds is best served through a process know as Integrated Pest Management (IPM).  IPM is a weed management methodology that utilizes:
  • Management thresholds to determine when and if to initiate control,
  • The ecology and life history characteristics of the targeted invasive weed,
  • Site specific conditions and land use considerations to inform management practices,
  • The effectiveness and efficiency of various control methods.
An IPM based strategy ensures the maximum effectiveness of treatment measures.  IPM strategies typically use more than one management method to target one or more susceptible life stages.  It is adaptive to site conditions in the field and to the response of a plant to management.  The utilization of multiple management tools also inherently reduces the use of herbicides in a management plan.   The IPM process ultimately provides a framework for the establishment of Best Management Practices (BMP) which outlines the best approach for controlling a weed particular infestation.

Considerations:

Before implementing weed control activities on your property it is important to consider the potential impact of your planned treatment.  Take the time to consider how your planned treatment activities will impact:
  • Animals-Recognize that treatment activities can negatively impact animals.  Plan your weed treatments to provide corridors and refuge to animals whenever possible.  Make a plan for reconnecting wildlife to your area after treatment.
  • Birds - Survey your treatment area for bird species and avoid treatments during nesting periods (Feb-Aug) or when fruiting to minimize the impact to bird species.
  • Beneficial insects and pollinators - Avoid treatments when plants are blooming to minimize the impact to native pollinators.  Also plan treatments during cooler weather when insects are less active.
  • Native plants- Target weeds during the times of the year when native plants are dormant to minimize the impact to native trees and shrubs.  Use targeted weed control practices to only target invasive weeds
  • Soil erosion- Recognize the potential for your site to erode.  Be especially aware if working on sloped sites, as these tend to be more highly erodible.  Weed control practices will routinely result in bare ground, so have a replant strategy ready following treatment to maintain your soils.

Manual:

The control of Himalayan blackberry can be a difficult task.  The sharp thorns and dense thickets formed by Himalayan blackberry inhibit movement and complicate control efforts. Himalayan blackberry thorns easily penetrate woven fabrics, as such thick leather gloves, long shirts, and thick pants are recommended when working with blackberry. Manual removal of Himalayan blackberry can be an effective control option, but its is labor intensive and often a difficult and painful process.  Small seedlings can be easily pulled with thick gloves, but mature plants are not easily removed.  The dense thickets formed by blackberry greatly limit access.  A site can be made more accessible for manual removal by using a long board or sheets of plywood to mash blackberry canes down to the ground. Plants can then be cut at ground level using loppers, machetes, or saws.  Once cut, root crowns and large lateral roots can be grubbed out using a Pulaski, a mattock, shovel, or Shrub Buster.  It is important to remove as much of the root mass as possible to prevent resprouting.  While effective this process heavily disturbs soils and increases the erosion potential of a site.  As such this is not recommended on steep or unstable soils. While manual removal can be an effective treatment it requires diligence to be effective.  A site will need regular follow-up to remove resprouts and seedlings.  A large number of seeds can persist in the soil under dense stands, so expect repeated efforts, as you exhaust the seed left in the soil. Cutting alone can be a useful management tool to prevent seeding and to allow access to  a site.  Unless repeated regularly and over several years,  cutting alone will not eliminate blackberry.  Blackberry plants will readily resprout following cutting from below ground root crowns.  Cutting is best used in combination with removal of root crowns and large lateral roots, or a targeted herbicide application to prevent resprouting.

Mechanical:

Large infestations of Himalayan blackberry can be removed through brush-mowing.  Like cutting, brush mowing alone won't kill Himalayan blackberry.  Mowing must be repeated at regular intervals to exhaust carbohydrates stored in underground roots.  Due to the thick growth of blackberry, mechanical removal can be very effective at increasing the access of a site to allow for crown and root removal, herbicide application, and replanting. Tillage can also be an effective for removing blackberry root crowns.  Crowns and canes should be raked up and removed following tillage to prevent resprouting.  Tillage causes extensive soil disturbance, so it is generally not recommended, unless a site is undergoing renovation.  Blackberry can resprout from small root fragments, so follow up should be carried out to target regrowth.

Cultural:

Burning can be an effective tool to clear large dense stands, but it will not eliminate Himalayan blackberry.  Other management such as crown removal or herbicide application is required to achieve control.  The available fuels in dense blackberry thickets can also be substantial, so care needs to be taken to keep fire contained.  As such fire is generally not a recommended control measure.  You should check with your local Fire District or the Oregon Department of Forestry for rules and recommendations. Grazing can be an effective method for controlling blackberry.  Unfortunately, grazing animals generally also target other plants as well, so their use is only recommended when blackberries are the dominant vegetation.  Browsing grazers such as goats and sheep are best for controlling blackberry.  These grazers feed best on new growth, and target the leaves, while the blackberry canes remain relatively undisturbed.  Due to the grazing habits of browsing grazers, dense blackberry stands are best controlled by "flash grazing" as site with a large numbers of animals in a small area for a short period of time.

Chemical:

Due to the difficulties associated with controlling Himalayan blackberry, herbicides are often a component in management of this species.  Himalayan blackberry is susceptible to several systemic herbicides.  Young canes are most susceptible, but should only be targeted after reaching at least 3 feet in height to allow the herbicide to be drawn down into its root system.  Plants should not be cut or removed for at least two weeks following an herbicide application.

Before you Start:

  • Before purchasing any herbicide product it is important to read the label.  The label is the Law.  Carefully review all parts of the label even if you have used the product before.  Select a product that is most appropriate for your site.  If you have questions, ask your vendor before purchasing a product.
  • When selecting herbicides always use a product appropriately labeled for your site. Follow label recommendations and restrictions at all times.  If any information provided here contradicts the label, the label takes precedence.  Always follow the label!
  • Protect yourself.  Always wear the recommended protective clothing identified on your label and shower after use.
  • When applying herbicides use spot spray techniques whenever possible to avoid harming non-target plants.
  • Do not apply during windy or breezy conditions that may result in drift to non-target plants
  • Avoid spraying near water.  Hand-pull in these areas, to protect aquatic and riparian plants and wildlife.
  • Avoid exposure to pets, pollinators, and wildlife.  Remove animals from treatment areas to avoid exposure to herbicides. Follow the reentry instructions on your herbicide label and keep pets out of the area until the herbicides have dried.  Avoid spraying when insects and animals are active.  Avoid spraying blooming plants to minimize an effects to bees and pollinators.
  • Be sure to store any chemicals, out of the reach of children and pets to keep your family safe.
  • Product labels and formulations change regularly.  Check the Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook and the label for current control recommendations.

Herbicides:

The mention of any brand name product is not, and should not be construed as an endorsement for that product.  They are included here only for educational purposes.  Suggested rates are generalized by active ingredient.  Specific rates will vary between products.  Be sure to review the label before application and use the recommended label rate at all times.

Active Ingredients

Product Names: Accord, Aquamaster, Rodeo, Roundup, and various others Rate: Broadcast: 2 - 3 qt per acre (2.25 to 3.4 lb ae/acre) Spot treat: use 0.5% to 1.5% v/v solutions. Time: Apply post emergence in late summer to early fall, (August - October) after canes and leaf canopy has reached maturity. Applications should be made  before a killing frost. Comments: Re-treatment may be required to achieve effective control.  Glyphosate is not selective and will harm grasses as well as broadleaf plants.  Use care when working around desirable plants to avoid damage.  Leaves should be sprayed until wet but not dripping to achieve good control.
Product Names: Garlon 4 (triclopyr ester),  Garlon 3A, Element 3A (triclopyr amine) Rate: Broadcast: Triclopyr ester- 1-4 lb ae/acre, Triclopyr amine- 1.5-4.5 lb ae/acre Spot treat: Triclopyr ester use 0.75% to 1% v/v solution, Triclopyr amine use 1% v/v solution Basal Bark: Triclopyr ester- use 20% v/v soultion with basal oil or seed oil. Time: Apply post emergence in late summer to early fall, (August - October) after canes and leaf canopy has reached maturity. Applications should be made before a killing frost. Comments: Re-treatment may be required to achieve effective control.  Triclopyr is selective and will harm desirable broad leaf plants, trees, and shrubs.  Use care when working around desirable plants to avoid damage.  Leaves should be sprayed until wet but not dripping to achieve good control.  Triclopyr ester formulations may volatilize under warm temperatures.
Product Names: Crossbow (Triclopyr + 2, 4D), Capstone (Triclopyr + aminopyralid) Rate: Broadcast: Triclopyr + 2, 4D- 1.5 gallons/acre, Triclopyr + aminopyralid- 6-9 pints/acre. Spot treat:  Triclopyr + 2, 4D- 1.0% to 1.5% v/v solution, Triclopyr + aminopyralid- equivalent to 6-9 pints/acre. Time: Apply post emergence in late summer to early fall, (August - October) after canes and leaf canopy has reached maturity. Applications should be made before a killing frost. Comments: Re-treatment may be required to achieve effective control.  Triclopyr + 2, 4D and Ticlopyr + aminopyralid are selective and will not harm grasses, but may damage desirable broad leaf plants, trees, and shrubs.  Use care when working around desirable plants to avoid damage.  Leaves should be sprayed until wet but not dripping to achieve good control.  Forage and manure derived from areas treated with Ticlopyr + aminopyralid, should not be composted or used around desirable vegetation. Check label for specific warnings and recommendations.
Product Names: Escort Rate:0.5 to 1 oz product/acre (0.3 to 0.6 oz ai/acre) Time: Apply post emergence in late summer when fully leafed out, but before leaf discoloration. Comments: Metsulfuron is primarily active against broad leaf plants and generally will not harm grasses.

Biological:

Blackberry leaf rust fungus (Phragmidium violaceum) is an accidentally introduced European species that can result in defoliation of Himalayan blackberry.  It is not an approved biological control agent.  Infected plants should not be transported due to the potential impact of this species on agriculturally important species.

Disposal:

Small amounts of plant material can be disposed with yard debris, or composted on site.  Avoid composting plants that are seeding.  Seeds may persist in home composting systems and may unwittingly be spread through contaminated compost. For larger patches plants can be chipped and spread on site allowed to decompose.  Alternatively, cut canes can be piled up to dry.  Fresh cuttings need to be kept off of wet ground to prevent resprouting. Once dried the piles can be brunt, be sure to check with your local Fire District or the Oregon Department of Forestry for suitable burn days.

Follow-Up:

Diligence is the most important aspect for controlling Himalayan blackberry.  Blackberry plants will readily resprout following various treatments methods, so repeated follow-up is required.  The seed may persist in the soil for years following treatment, or arrive on site from adjacent and nearby infestations.

Best Management Practices:

Small Infestations:

  • Consider the land use practices on site.  Identify, and site specific considerations that should be taken into account before initiating control.
  • Be sure you can properly identify Himalayan blackberry.  If you are unsure about your weed bring a sample to the Conservation District, and we can help to identify your particular weed.
  • Identify any native or desirable plants nearby, and take precautions to minimize and negative impact to them.
  • Manual removal is very effective at controlling small infestations of Himalayan blackberry.  Plants can be cut with loppers, a saw, or machete at ground level.
  • Use a long board or plywood to mash plants and increase allow access.
  • Dig or pry out the root ball using a Pulaski, shovel, or Shrub Buster.  Remove of as much of the root mass as possible to prevent resprouting.
  • Monitor the site for regrowth, and remove new sprouts as soon as they appear.
  • Small infestations can also be treated using a selective herbicide.  Spot spray techniques work well for small infestations.

Large Infestations:

  • Consider the land use practices on site.  Identify, and site specific considerations that should be taken into account before initiating control.
  • Be sure you can properly identify Himalayan blackberry.  If you are unsure about your weed bring a sample to the Conservation District, and we can help to identify your particular weed.
  • Identify any native or desirable plants nearby, and take precautions to minimize and negative impact to them.
  • Mow down the blackberry using chainsaws, weed eaters, or a brush mower.
  • Allow blackberry plants to regrow and treat with an approved herbicide.
  • Replant large areas to help stabilize soils.  Start with grasses and allow for treatment using a selective herbicide, then slowing incorporate forbs, shrubs, and trees as blackberry populations are brought under control.
  • Continue to monitor the site for regrowth and treat any new infestations.

Fun Facts:

  • The fruits of Himalayan blackberry are edible and makes great pies and jams.
  • September 29th is Poisoned Blackberry Day!  It is the day of the year that people believed blackberries turned bad for the year and were inedible.
  • "Batology" is the botanical study of blackberry brambles.

Additional Information:

References:

  1. Bossard, C. C., J. M. Randall, & M.C. Hoshovsky.  2000.  Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.  pp 277-281.
  2. Christy, J. A., A. Kimpo, V. Marttala, P. K. Gaddis, & N. L. Christy.  2009.  Urbanizing Flora of Portland Oregon 1806-2008.  Native Plant Society of Oregon Occasional Paper 3 pg. 218.
  3. DiTomaso, J.M. & E.A. Healy.  2007.  Weeds of California and Other Western State vol 2.  University of California ANR.  pp 1426-1434.
  4. DiTomaso, J.M., G.B. Kyser, S.R. Oneto, R. G. Wilson, S. B. Orloff, L. W. Anderson, S. D. Wright, J.A. Roncoroni, T.L. Miller, T.S. Prather.  2013.  Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States.  Davis, CA: UC Weed Research and Information Center.  pp 341-343.
  5. Holloran, P., A. Mackenzie, S Farrell, D. Johnson.  2004.  The Weed Workers Handbook: A Guide to Techniques for Removing Bay Area Invasive Plants.  Berkeley, CA: California Invasive Plant Council.  pp 60-61
  6. Kaufman, S. R. & W. Kaufman.  2007.  Invasive Plants: Guide to identification and the Impacts and Control of Common North American Species.  Mechanicspurg, PA: Stackpole Books. pp 145-151
  7. King County Noxious Weed Control Program.  2011.  King County Best Management Practices for Controlling Himalayan and Evergreen Blackberry (Rubus aremeniacus and Rubus laciniatus)http://your.kingcounty.gov/dnrp/library/water-and-land/weeds/BMPs/blackberry-control.pdf  (Retrieved May 23, 2013).
  8. Oregon Flora Project. 2013.  Oregon Plant Atlas: Rubus bifrons.  http://www.oregonflora.org/atlas.php.  (Retrieved May 22, 2013)
  9. Peachy, E., D. Ball, A. Hulting, T. Miller, D. Morishita, P. Hutchinson. eds.  2013.  Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook: Control of Problem Weeds.  (Retrieved May 24, 2013).
  10. Soll, J. 2004.  Controlling Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus, [Rubus discolor, Rubus procerus]) in the Pacific Northwest. The Nature Conservancy.  http://www.invasive.org/gist/moredocs/rubarm01.pdf   (Retrieved May 23, 2013)