Tag Archives | noxious


Woody Weeds of Clackamas County

A New WeedWise Publication The WeedWise Program is pleased to announce a new publication entitled, Woody Weeds of Clackamas County.  This resource guide is intended for use by local landowners and land managers to help them identify and manage woody weeds and naturalizing plants on their property. The Woody Weeds of Clackamas County covers a […]

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Goatsrue Eradication Project

Since 2016, the WeedWise program has been working to control the largest known infestation of goatsrue (Galega officinalis) in Oregon. Goatsrue is an Oregon class A noxious weed and has been deemed a high priority for control and eradication because it is toxic to livestock and spreads easily.  This federal and state noxious weed is only known at a handful of other sites across Oregon and the Pacific Northwest.

Goatsrue flowers

About Goatsrue

Goatsrue is a deep-rooted perennial, with hollow stems and compound alternate leaves.  The compound leaves have a terminal leaflet and 6-10 pairs of leaflets. The tip of each leaflet rapidly narrows to a fine tip. Goatsrue has pea-like flowers that vary in color from purple to white. Flowers bloom from June to October and are clustered at the end of its branches or at the leaf axils. Unlike some other members of the pea family, goatsrue lacks tendrils and grows in a more upright and bushy form rather than as a vine. The seeds are contained in pods with up to 9 mustard-colored, oblong seeds. Each plant can produce 15,000 pods a year. Additionally, these seeds may remain viable for 5-10 years in the soil.

Goatsrue closely resembles some regionally rare native plants, so we encourage landowners to contact us if they think they may have goatsrue on their property.

Robust goatsrue growth

What we Found

In May of 2016, during one of our planned weed surveys, one of our contracted survey crews discovered a large previously unknown population of goatsrue on two adjacent riparian properties along the Clackamas River. This infestation affects 14 acres and is the largest known infestation of goatsrue in Oregon. At that time, we began a management effort to contain and control this priority weed with the goal of eradication of the goatsrue as well as several other priority invasive plants present at these sites.

This discovery was found as part of extensive surveys of streamside properties along the Clackamas River initiated in 2015 and continuing into the present. Twenty-one priority invasive plant species were on our target list for these surveys. Some of these species had been documented in our region and some had not. These surveys help us to address new priority invasive plants and better manage priority invasive plants established here. We thank private landowners for allowing us to access their properties for these surveys!

Goatsrue herbicide application

What we are doing

The WeedWise Program initiated control soon after detection of this large infestation. Our approach began confirming the identity of the goatsrue. We then followed up with a thorough review of the biology and control of goatsrue. Most notably, we learned that goatsrue can have a long seed dormancy period allowing seeds to grow after 10 years in the soil. As a perennial weed with a deep taproot, it is all difficult to remove by hand. Therefore, our management goals were to prevent all seed production and to target the large root systems of existing plants.

Next, we researched management strategies appropriate for this plant and this site. We also consulted with the Oregon Department of Agriculture Noxious Weed Control Program and the City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services who both have prior experience managing goatsrue. Based on this research, we selected two herbicides to treat the infestation: one to target upland populations and a second aquatically approved herbicide to treat infestations that occur near water. The herbicide applications were planned by the WeedWise program and implemented using licensed restoration contractors.

What’s Next?

To date, our management efforts have been highly successful, but with the size and complexity of the site we did note some patches with regrowth after herbicide application, as well as new seedlings emerging. On follow-up monitoring of the site, we also found several overlooked patches that had grown in an among other vegetation. In response, our current efforts focus on continuing to scout for missed populations and to remove interspersed invasive Himalayan blackberry (Rubus bifrons) stands which may obscure goatsrue plants. We are carrying out multiple rounds of control each year to ensure that we are not letting any plants go to seed and to continue to address regrowth.

After two years of intensive control, we have dramatically reduced the populations and are on track to eradicate this population. Eradication will require ongoing monitoring and control to address the long seed dormancy. Although we won’t be walking away from the site anytime soon, we are optimistic knowing that the population is significantly reduced, and that we are committed to eradicating goatsrue from Clackamas County!

Project Photo Gallery


January’s Weed of the Month!

Our first 2017 weed of the month is ivy! You’ve probably seen it carpeting the ground in a natural area, or perhaps completely covering a wall, or possibly climbing high up a tree. Like many invasive plants, it was introduced as an attractive ornamental plant for landscaping. However, it escaped! Ivy has become highly invasive […]

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Holly slider

December’s Weed of the Month!

Deck the Halls with Boughs of Holly! December is the month when our busy lives get busier. The December mad dash of shopping, baking, wrapping, and mailing, ultimately gives way to the holidays spent surrounded by our loved ones. December should be a time of enjoying each others company, not concerning ourselves with weeds. After […]

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Working Together

The old adage “many hands make light work” could not be truer when it comes to weed management. The WeedWise Program routinely works with a number of partnering entities and organizations across our region to combat invasive weeds.  This include local, state, and federal agencies as well local non-profits and watershed councils. Our partnerships also […]

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Purge the surge in spurge!

This past season we have seen a rise in the number of Oblong spurge (Euphorbia oblongata) sites appearing in Clackamas County.  Oblong spurge is a class A noxious weed in the state of Oregon, and eradication of this species is required across the state.  It is known to be highly aggressive and can displace native […]

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What are weeds?

There are a whole host of terms to describe weeds.  The term “weeds” itself can refer to any plant that occurs in an undesirable location. Terms like “non-native“, “exotic“, “alien” or “non-indigenous” refer to plants that occur in areas where they historically did not occur.  These terms make no distinction whether plants are desirable or undesirable.  The term “invasive” refers to a plant or animal that exhibits aggressive growth and displace other species.  Other terms like “noxious” or “nuisance” refers to plants that have special designation by the state or by a municipality the prohibits their sale or cultivation.  With this broad diversity of terms, it is no wonder that many people find themselves confused and wondering how to make sense of it all.

At the WeedWise program we hope to clarify this issue by focusing on plants we refer to as “invasive weeds”Invasive weeds are plants that live outside their historic geographical range, and whose aggressive growth habit has a detrimental effect on our social, economic, or ecologic resources.  The three key components of invasive weeds are that they:

  1. Did not historically occur in our area, but have been brought in either intentionally or unintentionally through human action.
  2. Exhibit aggressive growth which displaces native or desirable vegetation, and will continue to spread unless actively controlled.
  3. Have a negative impact on our community.

These three characteristics clarify invasive weeds as those plants that pose the greatest threat to our community.  By focusing on invasive weeds the WeedWise program is working to maximize its limited resources to realize the greatest benefit to Clackamas County.

Defining our priorities

All invasive weeds pose a major threat to the residents of Clackamas County, but some of these pests can be more damaging than others.  In addition, the costs to control these invasive weeds greatly exceeds the resources available for their management.  As a result, the WeedWise program has prioritized its efforts to target invasive weeds that pose the greatest risk, have the greatest negative impact, and may still be limited enough in their distribution to allow for eradication or containment in Clackamas County.  For these “priority” invasive weeds, the WeedWise program may have resources available to assistance Clackamas County landowners to control or manage these weeds.  For more common invasive weeds, the WeedWise program offers technical information and consultations to improve your efforts and to make your management practices more effective.

Weed Classifications

WeedWise Classification

Priority:  These weeds are the highest priority that are actively being targeted for eradication by the WeedWise Program.  Landowners are encouraged to notify the WeedWise program for assistance with these weeds and to actively control them on their property.
Maintenance:  These weeds are damaging and widespread.  The WeedWise Program encourages control by landowners and can assist with development of a plan to control these weeds.

Oregon Noxious Weed Classification

Class A – a weed of known economic importance which occurs in the state in small enough infestations to make eradication or containment possible; or is not known to occur, but its presence in neighboring states make future occurrence in Oregon seem imminent.  Recommended action: Infestations are subject to eradication or intensive control when and where found.
Class B – a weed of economic importance which is regionally abundant, but which may have limited distribution in some counties. Recommended action: Limited to intensive control at the state, county or regional level as determined on a site specific, case-by-case basis. Where implementation of a fully integrated statewide management plan is not feasible, biological control (when available) shall be the primary control method.
Class T – a priority noxious weed designated by the Oregon State Weed Board as a target for which the ODA will develop and implement a statewide management plan. “T” designated noxious weeds are species selected from either the “A” or “B” list[/quote]

Washington Noxious Weed Classification

Class A noxious weeds are usually newcomers. They are often found in only a few places in the state, and state and local weed boards hope to completely eradicate them before they get a foothold in Washington. Class A weeds are the ones you are least likely to see – but the ones that are most important to report. (If you see a plant you think might be a Class A noxious weed, please report it to your County Weed Board.)

Class B noxious weeds are abundant in some areas of the state, but absent or rare in others. The goal for Class B weeds is to control and reduce their occurrence where they are abundant, and to prevent them from spreading to those parts of the state where they are rare or absent.

Class C Noxious weeds are already widespread in Washington. In some cases, counties may require property owners to control Class C weeds, but more often counties simply try to educate residents about why controlling them is a good idea.

4-County Cooperative Weed Management Area Weed Classification

A = red alert, most invasive, still controllable on a regional or local scale or limited spread
B = most invasive, locally abundant
C = most invasive, widespread
D = less aggressive, wildland invaders, less impact on natural systems
E = aggressive primarily in horticultural/agricultural situations;  note: this category is incomplete
F= needs more info, should be noted if and where it’s a problem
W= watch list

Columbia Gorge CWMA Ranking:

‘A’ Listed Weeds: Early Detection.  Some of these weeds are found outside the CWMA region but could invade the region at any time in the future.  Some have been found in the CWMA in isolated populations.  Management focuses on developing an Early Detection Rapid Response (EDRR) network of people and organizations to identify sites.

‘B’ Listed Weeds: High Importance.  These weeds can be locally abundant, but may also occur in spotty distribution across the landscape.  Management focuses on inventory to determine distribution, followed by eradication of small, isolated populations, and control or containment of larger infestations.

‘C’ Listed Weeds: Common.  These weeds occur across the landscape at a level where eradication, containment or control is not economically feasible.  Management focuses on removing them from ecologically, socially and economically important sites and slowing their spread through prevention actions.  When available, biological controls should be used.

‘W’ Listed Weeds: Watch list.  These weeds display invasive qualities in our area or similar ecosystems, but they have not yet proven to be problematic. Management focuses on inventory to determine if the plant is behaving aggressively followed by eradication or close observation going into the future. The purpose of the “Watch list” is to gather more information on suspect weeds, as well as monitor for occurrence or spread. Information collected may be used to justify future inclusion on the state

Clackamas Weed List

Common NameScientific NameOregon ClassificationWashington ClassificationWeedWise Classification4-County CWMAColumbia Gorge CWMA
VelvetleafAbutilon theophrastiBBBB
Barbed GoatgrassAegilops triuncialisA,Tnot listedpriorityAW
Tree of HeavenAilanthus altissimaBCmaintenanceBC
Garlic mustardAlliaria petiolataB,TApriorityBA
False indigo bush Amorpha fruticosaBBnot listedB
Wild chervilAnthriscus sylvestrisnot listedBmaintenancenot listedB
Italian arumArum italicumnot listedCmaintenanceBB
False bromeBrachypodium sylvaticumBApriorityBA
Butterfly bushBuddleja davidii (Buddleja varabilis)BBmaintenanceBB
Flowering rush Butomus umbellatusA,TApriorityWA
Welted thistleWelted thistleA,Tnot listedprioritynot listednot listed
Drooping sedgeCarex pendulaWnot listedpriorityWB
Meadow knapweedCentaurea × moncktonii (C. pratensis)BBmaintenanceBB
Spotted knapweedCentaurea stoebe (C. maculosa)B,TBmaintenanceBB
Canada thistleCirsium arvenseBCmaintenanceCC
Bull thistleCirsium vulgareBCmaintenanceDC
Old man's beardClematis vitalbaBCmaintenanceBC
Poison hemlockConium maculatumBBmaintenanceBB
English hawthornCrataegus monogynanot listedCmaintenanceCC
Yellow nutsedgeCyperus esculentusBBmaintenanceBB
HoundstongueCynoglossum officinaleBBpriorityDB
Scotch broomCytisus scopariusBBmaintenanceCB
Wild carrot Daucus carotanot listedCmaintenanceCC
Spurge laurelDaphne laureolaBBpriorityBB
Common teaselDipsacus fullonumnot listedCmaintenanceCC
South American waterweedEgeria densaBBmaintenanceCB
Myrtle spurgeEuphorbia myrsinitesBBmaintenanceEB
Oblong spurgeEuphorbia oblongataA,TApriorityAA
GoatsrueGalega officinalisA, TApriorityAA
Shining geraniumGeranium lucidumBBmaintenanceBA
Herb robertGeranium robertianumBBmaintenanceCB
English ivyHedera helixBCmaintenanceCB
Irish ivyHedera hibernicaBCmaintenanceCB
Giant hogweedHeracleum mantegazzianumA, TApriorityAA
Orange hawkweedHieracium aurantiacumA,TBpriorityAA
Meadow hawkweedHieracium caespitosumB,TBpriorityAB
St. John's wort Hypericum perforatumBCmaintenanceCC
Hairy cat's earHypochaeris radicatanot listedCmaintenanceCC
JewelweedImpatiens capensisWCmaintenanceCW
Policeman's helmet Impatiens glanduliferaBBpriorityBB
Yellow flag irisIris pseudacorusBCBB
Yellow archangelLamium galeobdolonBBmaintenanceBB
Large-flowered primrose willowLudwigia grandifloraB, Tnot listedmaintenancenot listedB
Primrose willowLudwigia hexapetalaB, TBmaintenancenot listedB
Water primroseLudwigia peploides ssp. montevidensisB, TAmaintenanceAA
Purple loosestrifeLythrum salicaria BBpriorityBB
Small broomrapeOrobanche minorBnot listedmaintenanceDA
African ruePeganum harmalaA,Tnot listedpriorityAW
RibbongrassPhalaris arundinacea var. pictaB,T Cmaintenancenot listedC
Reed canarygrassPhalaris arundinaceaWCmaintenancenot listedC
Bohemian knotweedFallopia × bohemica ( Polygonum × bohemicum )BBpriorityCB
Japanese knotweedFallopia japonica ( Polygonum cuspidatum )BBpriorityBB
Giant knotweedFallopia sachalinensis ( Polygonum sachalinensis )BBpriorityBB
Curly-leaf pondweedPotamogeton crispusnot listedCmaintenanceCC
Sulphur cinquefoilPotentilla rectaBBpriorityAB
Lesser celandineRanunculus ficariaBBmaintenanceBB
Armenian (Himalayan) blackberryRubus armeniacus (R. bifrons, R. procerus, R. discolor)BCmaintenanceCC
Evergreen blackberryRubus laciniatusnot listedCmaintenanceCC
Tansy ragwortSenecio jacobaeaBBmaintenanceBB
Common groundselSenecio vulgarisnot listedCmaintenancenot listedC
Blessed milk thistleSilybum marianumBApriorityAA
Perennial sowthistleSonchus arvensis ssp. arvensisnot listedCmaintenanceDC
Common tansyTanacetum vulgarenot listedCmaintenanceCC
Garden yellow loosestrifeLysimachia vulgarisA,TBpriorityAW
Spiny cockleburXanthium spinosumBCpriorityDC
Syrian bean-caperZygophyllum fabagoAApriorityAA
Biddy-biddyAcaena novae-zelandiaeBnot listednot listedW
Russian KnapweedAcroptilon repensBBpriorityAB
Pheasant eyeAdonis aestivalisBnot listedprioritynot listednot listed
Jointed goatgrassAegilops cylindricaBCprioritynot listedC
Ovate GoatgrassAegilops ovataAnot listedpriorityAW
CamelthornAlhagi pseudalhagiABpriorityAA
BlackgrassAlopecurus myosuroidesnot listedCAW
Yellow tuftAlyssum corsicumA,Tnot listedpriorityAW
Yellow tuftAlyssum muraleA,Tnot listedpriorityAW
RagweedAmbrosia artemisiifoliaBnot listedpriorityDB
Skeletonleaf bursageAmbrosia tomentosaAnot listedpriorityAnot listed
Annual buglossAnchusa arvensisnot listedBnot listedB
Common buglossAnchusa officinalisB,TBpriorityAB
Absinth wormwoodArtemisia absinthiumnot listedCnot listedC
South African capeweedArtotheca calendulaWnot listednot listedW
Giant reedArundo donaxWnot listedprioritynot listedA
Common barberryBerberis vulgarisnot listedCnot listedW
Hoary allysumBertoa incanaA,TBpriorityAB
White bryoniaBryonia albaABpriorityAA
FanwortCabomba caroliniananot listedBnot listedW
Plumeless thistleCarduus acanthoidesA,TBpriorityAA
Musk thistleCarduus nutansBBpriorityEB
Italian thistleCarduus pycnocephalusBApriorityDA
Slender-flowered thistleCarduus tenuiflorusBApriorityDA
Smooth distaff thistleCarthamus baeticusAnot listedpriorityAW
Woolly distaff thistleCarthamus lanatusA,Tnot listedpriorityAW
Whitestem distaff thistleCarthamus leucocaulosWnot listednot listedW
Wild safflowerCarthamus oxyacanthaWnot listednot listedW
Longspine sandburCenchrus longispinusnot listedCnot listedC
Purple starthistleCentaurea calcitrapaA,TApriorityAA
Diffuse knapweedCentaurea diffusaBBBB
Iberian starthistleCentaurea ibericaA,Tnot listedpriorityAA
Brown knapweedCentaurea jacea not listedBFB
Big-headed knapweedCentaurea macrocephalaWAnot listedA
Malta starthistleCentaurea melitensisnot listedBnot listednot listed
Black knapweedCentaurea nigra not listedBnot listedB
Vochin knapweedCentaurea nigrescensnot listedAnot listedA
Yellow starthistleCentaurea solstitialisBBpriorityAB
Feather-headed knapweedCentaurea trichocephalaWnot listednot listedW
Squarrose knapweedCentaurea virgataA,Tnot listedprioritynot listedA
Rush skeletonweedrChondrilla junceaB, TBpriorityDB
Oriental clematisClematis orientalisnot listedAnot listedA
Field bindweedConvolvulus arvensisB,TCCC
Jubata grassCortaderia jubataBCpriorityWB
Pampass grassCortaderia selloananot listedCnot listedC
Common crupinaCrupina vulgarisBAnot listedW
Smoothseed alfalfa dodderCuscuta approximataBCnot listedC
Bigseed dodderCuscuta indecoraBnot listednot listednotlisted
Japanese dodder Cuscuta japonicaAnot listedpriorityAW
Five-angled dodderCuscuta pentagonaBnot listednot listednotlisted
Purple nutsedgeCyperus rotundusAnot listedpriorityAA
Portuguese broomCytisus striatusB,Tnot listedWW
Cape ivyDelairea odorataAnot listedpriorityAW
Cutleaf teaselDipsacus laciniatusBnot listedprioritynot listedW
Tree echiumEchium pininanaWnot listednot listedW
Paterson's curseEchium plantagineumA,Tnot listedpriorityAW
Viper buglossEchium vulgareWBnot listedB
Water hyacinthEichhornia crassipesWnot listednot listednot listed
Russian oliveElaeagnus angustifolianot listedCnot listedC
Hairy willow-herbEpilobium hirsutum not listedBnot listedB
Spanish heath Erica lusitanicaBnot listedWW
Toothed spurgeEuphorbia dentataWnot listednot listedW
Leafy spurgeEuphorbia esulaB, TBpriorityBA
Common fennelFoeniculum vulgarenot listedBCB
French broomGenista monspessulanaBAWA
Reed sweetgrassGlyceria maximanot listedAnot listedA
BabysbreathGypsophila paniculatanot listedCnot listedC
HalogetonHalogeton glomeratusBnot listedprioritynot listedW
Texas blueweedHelianthus ciliarisnot listedAnot listedA
SpikeweedHemizonia pungensBCprioritynot listedC
Yellow hawkweedHieracium × floribundumA,TBpriorityAA
Polar hawkweedHieracium atratumnot listedBnot listedW
Whiplash hawkweedHieracium flagellarenot listedBnot listedW
Queen-devil hawkweedHieracium glomeratumnot listedBnot listedW
Common hawkweedHieracium lachenaliinot listedBnot listedB
Pale hawkweedHieracium lactucellanot listedBnot listedW
Smooth hawkweedHieracium laevigatumnot listedBnot listedW
Spotted hawkweedHieracium maculatumnot listedBnot listedW
Wall hawkweedHieracium murorumnot listedBWW
Mouse-ear hawkweedHieracium pilosellaA,TBpriorityAA
King-devil hawkweedHieracium piloselloidesA,TBpriorityAA
European hawkweedHieracium sabaudumnot listedBnot listedW
HydrillaHydrilla verticillataAApriorityWA
Common frogbitHydrocharis morsus-ranaeAnot listedpriorityAW
Black henbaneHyoscyamus nigernot listedCnot listedC
Small-flowered jewelweedImpatiens parvifloranot listedApriorityAA
Dyers woadIsatis tinctoriaBAnot listedA
KochiaKochia scopariaBBprioritynot listedB
Perennial peavineLathyrus latifoliusBnot listedmaintenanceCC
Lens-podded whitetopLepidium chalepensisBnot listedpriorityAB
Hoary cressLepidium drabaBCpriorityAB
Perennial pepperweedLepidium latifoliumB,TBpriorityAB
Hairy whitetopLepidium pubescensBCprioritynot listedC
LepyrodiclisLepyrodiclis holosteoidesnot listedCnot listedW
Oxeye daisyLeucanthemum vulgarenot listedCmaintenanceCC
West Indian spongeplantLimnobium laevigatumAnot listedpriorityAW
Dalmatian toadflaxLinaria dalmaticaB, TBBB
Yellow toadflaxLinaria vulgarisBCmaintenanceBC
Rose campionLychnus coronariaWnot listednot listedW
Wand loosestrifeLythrum virgatum not listedBnot listedW
Scentless mayweedMatricaria perforatanot listedCnot listedC
Wild four o'clockMirabilis nyctagineanot listedAnot listedW
Variable-leaf milfoilMyriophyllum heterophyllumnot listedAnot listedA
Eurasian watermilfoilMyriophyllum spicatumBBpriorityCB
Hybrid watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum × M. sibiricum not listedCnot listednot listed
Parrots featherMyrophyllum aquaticumBBmaintenanceBB
MatgrassNardus strictaA,Tnot listedpriorityAW
Fragrant water lilyNymphaea odoratanot listedCDC
Yellow floating heartNymphoides peltataA, TBpriorityAA
Scotch thistleOnopordum acanthiumBBpriorityAB
Taurian thistleOnopordum tauricumA,Tnot listedpriorityAW
Mile-a-minute weedPersicaria perfoliataWnot listednot listedW
Japanese butterburPetasites japonicanot listednot listedWB
Common reed Phragmites australis ssp. australisBBpriorityAB
American pokeweedPhytolacca americanaWnot listedBA
Hawkweed oxtonguePicris hieracioides not listedBnot listedB
Himalayan knotweedPolygonum polystachyumBBprioritynot listedB
KudzuPueraria montanaA,TApriorityAA
Austrian fieldcressRorippa austriacanot listedCnot listedC
Creeping yellow cressRorippa sylvestrisBnot listednot listedA
Sweet briar roseRosa rubiginosa ( R.eglanteria )Wnot listednot listedW
RavennagrassSaccharum ravennaeAApriorityAA
Grass-leaved arrowheadSagittaria graminea not listedBnot listedW
Delta arrowheadSagittaria platyphyllaAnot listedAnot listed
Mediterranean sageSalvia aethiopisBAnot listedA
Meadow clarySalvia pratensisnot listedAnot listedW
Clary sageSalvia sclareaWAnot listedW
Ricefield bulrushSchoenoplectus mucronatusWADA
Cereal ryeSecale cerealenot listedCnot listedC
White cockleSilene latifolia ssp. albanot listedCnot listedC
Silverleaf nightshadeSolanum elaeagnifoliumAApriorityAA
BuffaloburSolanum rostratumBCpriorityDC
Sticky nightshadeSolanum sisymbriifoliumWnot listednot listedW
Field BurrweedSoliva sessilisnot listedCnot listedW
JohnsongrassSorghum halepenseBApriorityEA
Smooth cordgrassSpartina alternifloraA, TApriorityAW
Common cordgrassSpartina anglicaA,TApriorityAW
Dense-flowered cordgrassSpartina densifloraA,TApriorityAW
Saltmeadow cordgrassSpartina patensA,TApriorityAW
Spanish broomSpartium junceumBApriorityFA
SwainsonpeaSphaerophysa salsulaBCnot listedC
Water soldiersStratiotes aloidesAnot listedpriorityAnot listed
Medusahead ryeTaeniatherum caput-medusaeBnot listedpriorityCC
SaltcedarTamarix ramosissimaB,TBWB
Spurge flaxThymelaea passerinanot listedBnot listedW
European water chestnutTrapa natansAnot listedpriorityAA
PuncturevineTribulus terrestrisBBpriorityCB
ColtsfootTussilago farfaraABpriorityAA
Narrowleaf cattailTypha angustifolianot listedCnot listedC
Southern cattailTypha domingensisnot listedCnot listedW
Miniature cattailTypha minimanot listedCnot listedW
White cattailTypha x glaucanot listedCnot listedW
GorseUlex europaeusB,TBpriorityAA
North Africa grassVentenata dubia ( V. avenacea )BCnot listedC
Japanese eelgrassZostera japonicaWCnot listedW
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